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Hardware

Mene ne NETWORKING?

Duk wurin da aka ce akwai Kwamfuta fiye da ɗaya, to ana buƙatar a yi musu networking. Domin idan ba a yi musu networking ba, to babu yadda za ayi su amfana da kayan da kowacce ta mallaka, sai ta hanyar zuwa kai tsaye ga wannan Kwamfutar. Dukkanin waɗansu kaya da ita wannan Kwamfuta ta mallaka zai kasance sai dai ita kaɗai za ta amfana da su. Kama daga Documents da Hotuna da waƙoƙi da sauti da bidiyo da folders da manya-manyan mazubai (Harddisk) da CD ko DVD Rom da kuma Printer duk waɗannan abubuwa ne da idan babu network a wuri, to babu yadda za a yi wani ya yi amfani da su sai ya zo ga ita Kwamfuta da waɗannan abubuwan suke ciki.
Idan Kwamfutarka tana haɗe da network tare da wata kwamfutar ko kuma kwafutoci masu yawa, to, za ka iya saryar da kayan da suke cikin ta domin kowa ya iya yin amfani da su. Misalin za ka iya bai wa kowa damar ya shiga cikin kwamfutarka amma ta kwamfutarshi ya iya buɗe wani document da ka yarda a buɗe a karanta ko kuma ya ɗauka shi ma domin ya yi aiki da shi. Haka ma za ka iya ba da damar a buɗe folder kacokan daga wata Kwamfuta domin zubawa ko kuma ɗaukar wani abu daga cikinta ba tare da wani ya zo ya matsa maka cewar don Allah tashi zan ɗauko abu kaza a cikin ‘folder’ kaza ba.
Haka wanda yake da network na kwamfutarsa da wata idan yana so zai iya bai wa kowa damar ya yi amfani da babban mazubin kwamfutarsa (Hard Disk) domin ya iya ɗaukar wani abu da ke ciki ko kuma ya saka mishi wani abu daga tashi kwamfutar. Haka ma idan akwai gidan faifai na CD ko DVD (CD/DVD Rom) a jikin kwamfutarka za ka iya bai wa mutane damar su yi amfani da shi. Misali sai ya kasance ka yi (Sharing) gidan faifai da kake da shi, kuma a wata Kwamfutar babu gidan faifan to, idan wancan yana da wani abu da yake son ya ɗauka a cikin wani faifai, abin da zai yi kawai shi ne ya baka faifan kai kuma ka saka a taka kwamfutar sai ya koma tashi kwamfutar ya buɗe shi wannan faifai da ka saka a Kwamfutarka, ya buɗe ya dibi abin da yake buƙata a cikin wannan faifan.
Haka idan mutum yana da kwamfutoci da yawa kuma yana da ‘printer’ guda ɗaya, to a nan ya yi cikakken dabara domin ya sauƙaƙa wa kansa da ma’aikatansa sauƙi wurin yin zirga – zirgar kai aiki zuwa ga ita kwamfutar da aka saka mata wannan printer. Haka shi ma wadda printer take a jikin tashi kwamfutar ba zai samu matsawa ba daga mutanen da suke yin aiki da ita ba.
Da zarar ya saka wannan printer a cikin kwamfutarsa sannan kuma ya bada damar kowa ya iya amfani da ita, to kowa daga Kwamfutarsa idan ya gama aikinsa zai aiko da printing ɗinsa kamar printa ɗin daman tana jikin tasa kwamfutar ne. Kawai sai dai ya je ya ɗauko bayan ta gama printing.
Haka idan akwai networking a kamfani ko kuma a ofishinku ko kuma a gida sannan kuma aka samu wata Kwamfuta tana yin browsing na Intanet, to, wanda yake da wannan Intanet ɗin zai iya sakar wa kowa ya yi browsing a lokaci guda ba tare da wani ya zo ya ce Don Allah bari in buɗe imel ɗina ba.
Kamar yadda yanzu Intanet ya yi sauɗin samu za ka ga a halin yanzu kowa na iya mallakar service na Intanet ta hanyar kamfanoni masu sayar da layin waya, ko kuma ta hanyar USB Modem. To, Modem ɗaya zai iya wadatar da dukkanin kamfani wajen samun Intanet a cikin su, ta hanyar saryar da service ɗin ga kowa da kowa da ke jikin wannan network ɗin.

Abubuwan da ake buƙata domin tabbatar Networking

Idan kana buƙatar a ka haɗa Kwamfuta guda biyu ko fiye da haka wuri ɗaya, to, ka sani cewar dole sai ya kasance an sami abubuwa guda uku waɗanda dole sai sun haɗu kafin a ce Networking ɗinka ya yi aiki. Kodayake waɗannan abubuwa guda uku suna ƙarƙashin Hardware ne da Software.
1. Kwamfutocin da ake son a haɗa su wuri guda: Kwamfutocin da Devices da aka haɗa su a network a Turance ana kiransu da ‘Nodes’ a lokacin da suke hade da Network
2. Shi Networking ɗin da ya haɗa waɗannan Kwamfutocin wuri guda, wanda ya haɗa da shi kan shi Hardware da zai haɗa network ɗin, da kuma wayoyin da za su haɗa ka da wata Kwamfuta ‘Network Cable’ da kuma Devices da ake buƙata domin su haɗa Kwamfutocin da kuma wayoyin wuri guda.
3. Software da zai fassara saƙwannin da za su riƙa yawo tsakanin waɗannan kwamfutocin da su kansu networking.

Hardware da ake buƙata wajen yin Networking

Waɗannan su ne kayayyakin da mutum ke buƙata idan yana son ya haɗa Network ɗan ƙarami wanda ya wuce Kwamfuta guda biyu, wato daga uku zuwa sama. Amma idan kwamfutoci biyu ne ba sai ka nemi dukkanin waɗannan hardware ɗin ba.
network adapter1. Network Adapter Cards: Shi wannan ‘Network Adapter’ shi ne wanda zai haɗa kwamfutarka da sauran hardware da za su taimaka wajen yin network. Network Adapter wani ɗan ƙaramin kati ne da ake zira shi a jikin motherboard ta wajen amfani da expansion slot. Kodayake motherboard na zamani suna tare da su akwai wannan adapter, amma idan bai zo da shi ba kafin ka iya yin networking dole sai an saka wa Kwamfuta Network Adapter Card.

network hub2. Network Hub: Shi ‘Network Hub’ shi wani device ne na daban wanda yake haɗa tsakanin kwamfotocin da suke kan network wanda yake da ramuka ‘jacks’ ko ‘ports’ daidai adadin yawan Kwamfutocin da kake son ka haɗa su a kan network daidai irin hub ɗin da mutum zai nema. Wato shi ne mahaɗar Kwamfutotocin da suke kan network, idan aka sa waya daga wata Kwamfuta zai shiga cikin hub ne, wata ma Kwamfutar idan nata ya taho zai shiga cikin ramin hub, haka za a ta tara su iya yawan Kwamfutocin. Saboda haka a sakamakon wannan hub da aka haɗa waɗannan kwamfutocin da shi kowace Kwamfuta za ta iya samun alaka da ‘yar uwarta.

network cable3. Network Cables: Wannan wayoyi ne aka yi su na musamman domin yin networking wanda ake kiransu da Unleashed Twisted-Pair (UTC). Waya ce guda ɗaya wacce a cikin ta akwai waɗansu ƙananan wayoyi sirara guda takwas (8). Su waɗannan wayoyi guda takwas an raba su gida huɗu akwai mai ruwan goro da ‘yar uwarta mai ratsin fari, sannan akwai mai ruwan shuɗi da ‘yar uwarta mai ratsin fari, sannan akwai mai ruwan ganye da ‘yar uwarta mai ratsin fari, sannan akwai mai ruwan ƙasa da ‘yar uwarta mai ratsin fari. Su waɗannan wayoyi su ake feke su a zura su a cikin wata roba wadda aka yi ta ita ma ta musamman domin aikin network wacce ake kira da ‘RJ-45 Connector’. Kowane baki na farkon wayar da ƙarshe za a sami shi wannan RJ-45 Connector wanda shi ne baki na farko za a haɗa da Kwamfuta, baki na biyu kuma za a haɗa a jikin Hub.

Saboda haka, waɗannan kaya da muka ambata, kama daga Network Adapter Card da Hubs da Network Cable su ne abubuwan da mutum yake buƙata wajen yin networking na Kwamfuta da wata Kwamfuta, kuma wannan haɗin shi ake kira da Ethernet.
Shi Ethernet shi ne hanya da ake bi domin a samar da haɗuwar kwamfutoci a wuri guda wanda ake sa rai karfin tafiyar da data daga wannan Kwamfutar zuwa wata Kwamfutar ya kai miliyan 10 na digo daga Kwamfuta (10Mbps – Million bits Per Second). Wannan ƙarfin aikawa da saƙo da yake yi har bit miliyan goma a daƙiƙa guda ya kasance a halin yanzu ba komai ba ne idan ka danganta shi da irin kayan zamani da ake da su. Wanda a halin yanzu kayan Ethernet yana farawa ne daga 100mbps wanda ake kira da Fast Ethernet. Kodayake ita Kwamfuta da kuma kayan network suna iya sirkawa da kuma karbar kowane irin ƙarfi da ya fara daga 10mbps zuwa 100mbps.

Wireless networking (Netwokin ba mai amfani da waya ba)

wireless routerIdan za ka duba a baya mun yi maganar cewar shi networking ana amfani da waya ne kuma komin nisan ofishi zuwa wani ofishi dole ne a jawo wannan wayar daga jikin Kwamfuta zuwa jikin hub. Amma kuma akwai wata hanya wacce ake haɗa Kwamfutoci ba tare da an yi amfani da waya ba, wanda a Turance ake kira da Wireless Network. Shi Wireless Network yana fara wa daga lokacin da mutum yake son ya haɗa Kwamfutoci masu yawa kuma a wurare masu ‘yan tazara. Domin yin Network a babban ofishi da kuma yake da tara tsakanin wannan ofis zuwa wancan ofis sannan kuma a ce za a yi amfani da waya zai ja kuɗi ba wai kaɗan ba. Amma yin amfani da tsarin wireless zai sauƙaƙa maka wajen kashe kuɗi mai yawa, da kuma baka natsuwa wajen haɗa su Kwamfutocin.
Daga cikin amfani da wireless network yake da shi, zai iya yiwuwa a samu ana son a haɗa Kwamfuta a wurin da zai bayar da wahala idan za a yi amfani da waya, ko kuma kana da Desktop Computer sannan kuma kana da Laptop kuma kana buƙatar duk inda kake a cikin wannan gida a ce kana iya shiga cikin ita Desktop domin ka ɗauko wani kaya ko kuma ka yi Printing. To, za ka iya mallakar Wireless Network Adapter da yake zuwa tare da wurin zira mishi waya. Ka ga zai maka aiki guda biyu, wireless ya yi aiki da laptop shi kuma wannan ramin ya yi aiki da Desktop ɗinka.
Akwai waɗansu kayan hardware da ake network na daban waɗanda ba su kai ƙarfin Fast Ethernet. Su irin waɗannan hardware su ne irin waɗanda suke yin amfani da layin yana irin na tangaraho ko kuma wanda ake kira da Power Line. Su irin waɗannan kaya ba su da sauri wurin aikawa da saƙon data daga wannan Kwamfutar zuwa wata Kwamfutar. Domin su suna farawa ne daga 1Mbps zuwa 10Mbps. Su kuwa kayan hardware na Ethernet suna farawa ne daga 10Mbps zuwa 100Mbps. Sannan kuma su waɗannan kayan hardware ba su da aminci tsakanin su, wato ba zai yiwu ka yi amfani da wani kamfani ba kuma ya yi amfani da na wani kamfani na daban ba.

SHAWARA

Idan har kana son ka haɗa network to shawara ta farko shi ne ka sayi kayan Standard Ethernet Hardware. Domin waɗannan kayan hardware su ne waɗanda ake samun a jikin dubban Kwamfutoci da ake amfani da su a kasuwa, ma’aikatu da wuraren da ake amfani da kwamfutoci, wanda da waɗannan kayayyakin ne ake haɗa miliyoyin kwafutoci a duniya baki ɗaya.
Kayayyakin yin Ethernet Network suna da aminci, da juriya da kuma sauƙin yin amfani da su. Sannan Ethernet ana samunsu a ko’ina a shagunan da ake sayar da kayan Kwamfuta. Za ka iya samun Hubs da Adapter da kuma wannan wayoyin. Sannan kuma wani abin jin daɗi shi ne za ka iya sayan kayana Ethernet na kowane irin kamfani ba tare da kana zullumin ƙin yin aikisu ba.
Amma idan ya zo ga mai son ya yi amfani da Wireless, to ya sayi Wireless Ethernet wanda yake da tsarin wireless kuma yana da ramin da za a zira (wire) a jikin shi.

SABABBIN KIMIYYA A WURIN NETWORK

Sabon Standard Ethernet suna iya karbar sakon mafi ƙarfi fiye da yadda kake tsammani. Wannan kuwa ya haɗa da na amfani da waya ‘Wired Network’ da ma wanda ba sai an haɗa da waya ba (Wireless).
Gigabit Ethernet: Shi sabon kayan network ne wanda yake iya aika sakon data har 1000Mbps (1Gbps) a cikin daƙiƙa guda. Wanda idan muka haɗa shi da Standard Ethernet da yake iya aika wa da saƙon Data 100Mbps sai mu ga karfin Gigabit Ethernet ya ninka shi sau goma kenan. Kodayake idan har mutum yana son ya haɗa Kwamfutarshi da wannan Hardware na Gigabit, to yana iya yin amfani da waya ta Category 5 (UTC) amma kuma sai ya mallaki hub wanda aka yi shi na musamman domin ya iya karɓar saƙon ya fassara wa ita Kwamfutar da zai aikawa.
Kodayake, su ma kayan Hardware na Standard Ethernet Network suna iya karɓar saƙo daga Gigabit Ethernet kuma suna iya fassara wa ita Kwamfutar sakon da shi Gigabit ya aiko da shi.

SOFTWARE DA AKE BUƘATA WURIN YIN NETWORKING

global networkKamfanin Microsoft sun haɗa da software da ka ke buƙata domin yin networking. A lokacin da mutum yake saka Operating System na Microsoft kamar Windows XP ko Windows Vista da makamantansu, suna zuwa tare da shi wannan software.
Amfanin wannan software shi ne ya fassara signa da take fitowa daga wata Kwamfuta zuwa hub zuwa kuma modem yadda ita Kwamfutar taka ko kuma wacce take haɗe da taka su iya fahimtar saƙon da ke tafiya tsakanin su.
Saboda da haka a lokacin da ka sanya wa Kwamfutarka Adapter na Network da zarar ta yarda da shi (Installation) bayan da ka saka mata Drivers ɗin shi. Suma Drivers ɗin suka zauna a cikin Kwamfuta to duk irin Hub da ka yi amfani da shi, wannan software da yake jinkin windows ɗinka zai fassara signal da yake ji tana biyowa ta cikin wannan hub.

IRE-IREN NETWORK DA AKE DA SU.

Hanya guda da za ka iya fahimtar wane irin network yake ma’aikatanmu ko kuma wane irin network nake buƙata a tare da ni shi ne ta hanyar sanin mene ne irin network da aka haɗa maka, kuma wane irin abubuwa wannan network yake buƙata. Kuma a wane yanayi ake amfani da shi? Akwai ire-iren network da ake da su, waɗanda suka dace da wurin da mutum yake aiki a gida ko makaranta kamar haka:
1. LAN – Local Area Network
2. WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network
3. WAN – Wide Area Network
4. MAN – Metropolitan Area Network
5. SAN – Storage Area Network, System Area Network, Server Area Network ko kuma wani lokaci ana danganta shi da Small Area Network
6. PAN – Personal Area Network
7. DAN – Desk Area Network

Mene ne LAN?

LAN ko kuma Local Area Network shi ne networking da aka yi wa Kwamfutoci da suke zaune a wuri ɗaya ta hanyar yin amfani da waya ta (UTC). Irin wannan LAN ana amfani da shi ne a gidaje, makarantu, ma’aikatu. Wani lokaci za ka iya samu a cikin gini guda a samu fiye da LAN guda ɗaya (kowane daki yana da nasa LAN). Haka kuma LAN wani lokaci yakan shiga makwabtan gidaje.
Idan kuwa aka zo ta maganar lura da shi LAN da kuma wurin da yake ɗauka, shi LAN wani lokaci mutum guda ke lura da shi, kuma mutum guda ko ma’aikata guda take da shi. Sannan dukkansu suna amfani da kayan da muka ambata a sama na Ethernet ko Taken Ring.

MENE NE WAN – Wide Area Network

Idan aka zo dangane da WAN za mu danganta shi da faffaɗan network da ya haɗa Kwamfutoci a wurare daban-daban waɗanda suke nesa da juna. Intanet ita ce mafi girman WAN da ake da ita a duniya kasancewar ta tattara Kwamfutocin da suke duniya gaba ɗaya.
Kodayake shi WAN yana tabbata ne a lokacin da aka sami LAN a wuri. Ma’ana ba ya yiwuwa a sami WAN sai bayan kasancewar akwai LAN a cikin wurin. Shi WAN ana amfani da device me suna Router wanda shi ke ƙulla alaƙa tsakanin LAN.
WAN yana da banbancin mahimmanci tsakaninshi da LAN. Mafi yawan WANs (kamar Intanet) babu wanda yake da hakkin mallakarsu, mutum ne shi ko kuma wani kamfani ne. sai dai yana tabbata ne ta hanyar haɗuwar mutane da kuma lura da shi. WAN yana amfani da tsarin fasaha kamar ATM, Frame Relay da kuma X.25 domin samun haɗuwar Kwamfutoci daga wuri mai nisa.
LAN da WAN ana amfani da su a network na gida ne, sannan kuma suna iya amfani da intanet ta hanyar samun service na Intanet na wurin kamfanonin da suke bayar da damar a yi amfani da Intanet wanda ake kiransu da Intanet Service Providers (ISP) ta hanyar amfani da modem wanda ake kira da Broadband Modem. Su waɗannan kamfanonin ISP su za su bai wa shi wannan WAN IP Adireshin da zai yi amfani da shi wajen yin browsing. Shi kuma wannan WAN zai bai wa dukkanin waɗannan Kwamfutocin da suke haɗe da wannan Modem IP Address da za su yi amfani da shi wajen yin browsing wanda ake kira da (Private IP Adresses).

Mene ne WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network

Shi WLAN shi ne haɗa Kwamfuta ta hanyar amfani da Wireless wanda ake kiranshi da Wi-Fi. Shi Wi-fi shima yana ƙarƙashin LAN ne amma kuma mai yin amfani da wireless.

Metropolitan Are Network

Shi ne networking da aka yi da LAN amma kuma ya yi nisa sosai amma kuma ba za ka haɗa shi da WAN ba, amma kuma ya fi LAN da ka sani nisa. Kamar misalin Network da za a yi wa unguwa guda domin amfani ga masu zaman wannan unguwar. Ta wurin lura da MAN za ka samu hukuma ce ko kuma wani babban kamfani suke lura da shi.

Campus Area Network

Shi ne a yi wa wuri network wanda shi ma network zai ɗauko wuri mai tsawo amma kuma nisan shi ba zai kai na MAN ba. Kamar a yi wa makaranta gaba ɗayanta Network ko kuma wani wurin na hada-hadar kasuwanci.

Storage Area Network

Shi ne network ɗin da aka yi domin a haɗa Servers da zai riƙa ajiyar data ta hanyar amfani da fasaha na Fiber Channel.

System Area Network

Shi wannan network ne da yake haɗa manyan kwamfutoci masu aiki cikin tsananin hanzari (High-performance Computers) ta hanya mai tsananin ƙarfi wadda suke haɗuwa ta shirin cluster. Wanda a wani lokaci ake kiran wannan network da Cluster Area Network.

BANBANCI TSAKANIN NETWORK DA INTANET

Kwamfutocin da aka yi zumuntar ƙulla alaƙarsu da juna amma suna cikin gini guda shi ake kira da Local Network. Ita kuwa Intanet ita ce haɗuwar miliyoyin Kwamfutoci daga ko’ina a faɗin duniya wanda ake kira da WAN. Saboda ita intanet ta haɗa Kwamfutoci iri daban-daban daga wurare masu yawa ya kasance dole a sami wani manhaji guda wanda zai iya fassara abin da su waɗancan kwamfutocin suke aiko wa, ita kuma taka kwamfutar take karba.
Duk Kwamfutar da take da manhajin Operating System na Microsoft, to za ta iya yin magana da kowace irin Kwamfuta saboda a cikinta akwai Software na musamman da aka yi wanda yake fassara wa ita kwamfutar irin saƙon da yake zuwa daga wata Kwamfuta. Haka kuma a jikin shi wannan software har ila yau akwai ɓangaren da yake karɓar saƙo daga intanet.

Categories
Duniyar Internet

INTANET A MATAKIN FARKO

Haduwar miliyoyin Kwamfutoci ta daga wurare daban-daban shi ake kira da Intanet. Wadannan kwamfutocin sun hadu ne domin su yi musayar bayanai ga al’umma da ma’aikatu da kungiyoyi ko gwamnatoci ko kuma daidaikun mutane ta hanyar waya.

Wannan yake nuna mana cewar dukkan wata kwamfuta da ake browsing da ita, ita ma bangare ne na intanet. Haduwar taka da ta wancan da ta sauran shi ya sa ake samun intanet kuma musayar bayanan da na ajiye a tawa da wanda wancan ya ajiye a tashi shi ma ai intanet ne.

Hanya mafi shahara da ake amfani da intanet shine ta hanyar amfani da shafuka da ake amfani da su wajen yin mu’amala da mutane. Sannan kuma ana amfani da intanet wajen aikawa da sakonnin imel da kuma karba ko kuma amsa shi imel din. Haka ana amfani da intanet wajen yin magana rubutacciya ko ta sauti (chat). Haka kuma ana amfani da intanet wajen musayar takardu ko kuma rubuce-rubuce.

An fara amfani da intanet ne a karshen shekarar 1960’s wanda sashen tsaron kasar Amurka suka yi amfani domin fadada bayanai da musayarsu a lokacin yakin duniyar na biyu. Amma a wuraren shekarar 2007 sama da mutane biliyan 1.2 aka kiyasta cewar suna amfani da wannan kafa ta intanet.

YA YA AKE HADA KWAMFUTA DA INTANET?

Masu son amfani da intanet zasu iya samun damar shiga intanet ta yin amfani da hanyoyi mabanbanta. Hanyar da ta fi kowace saukin samu da kuma arha wajen biya ga kuma tsananin rashin sauri ita ce tsohuwar hanya da aka yi amfani da ita a zamanin baya wacce ake kira da dialup connection. Shi wannan hanya ce da ake samun intanet ta hannun kamfanonin wayar tangaraho ta hanyar amfani da layin waya da kuma modem na waya.

Hanyar da ta fi sauri da kuma tafiya cikin hanzari shine ta yin amfani da DSL (Digital Subscriber Line). Haka kuma akwai hanyar da ake kira da Cable Modem, ko kuma ta hanyar amfani da Sattelite, ko kuma ta hanyar amfani da ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network). Wani lokaci ma akan yi amfani da hanya mara waya (Wireless) domin a samu damar shiga intanet ba tare da an hada wata kwamfuta da wata kwamfutar ba ta waya ba.

Kamfanin da suke taimakon mu mu samu damar shiga intanet su ake kira da ISP ko Internet Service Providers.

SAURI WURIN BUDEWAR SHAFUKA A INTANET

Sauri wurin budewar shafuka a harkar intanet ya na taka muhummiyar rawa. Domin rashin sauri wurin budewar shafi shi zai kawo tsaiko wurin aikawa da kowane irin sako a intanet. Wanda ya ke amfani da tsohuwar hanya domin samun tsanin shiga intanet (dialup) shafukan ba sa iya budewa da sauri kasancewar shi dialup connection yana tafiya ne a zangon 56 kilobit a cikin dakika daya. Shi kuwa mai amfani da ISDN wajen samun tsanin shiga intanet shafukan sa suna tafiya a saurin zango na 64 zuwa 128 kilobits a cikin dakika daya. Shi kuwa wanda yake amfani da DSL wajen samun tsanin hawan intanet yana fara tafiya a karfin zango na 3 Megabit zuwa 6 Megabits a cikin dakika daya.

Shafukan da aka yi amfani da dialup connection wajen bude su ka iya daukar dakikoki 20 a daidai wannan lokacin wanda ya ke amfani da Cable Modem shi kuma irin wannan shafi zai dauke shi dakika daya ne kacal.

MATASHIYA

ME AKE NUFI DA KBPS KO MBPS?

Kbps na nufin Kilo Bits Per Second. Shi kuwa Mbps na nufin Mega Bits Per Second. Wannan ya na fadawa mai amfani da intanet irin karfin da signal ya ke shigowa cikin kwamfutarsa.

Misali idan aka ce Dialup yana tafiya a karfin 56kbps ana nufin a cikin kowane dakika daya gido 57,591,808 su ke biyo jikin wayar da ta hada kwamfutarka da intanet. To wadannan dige-digen su ne suke taruwa su fitar da abin da ya ke jikin shafin intanet.

Wannan ke nuna maka cewar shafukan da muke budewa wadanda akwai rubutu ko sauti ko bidiyo ko hotuna suna fara shigowa ne a matsayin digo sai su taru sannan su bayyana a cikin shafukan har mu gansu. To wannan digon da ya ke shigowa shi ake kira da bit

Saboda haka saurin shigowar dige-digen iya kuzarin bude shafinka shi yasa wanda yake mafani da DSL ko Cable Modem aka ce yana da karfin ya bayyanar da biliyoyin dige-dige har 3 zuwa 6 na Mbps.

YADDA KWAMFUTOCI MABANBANTA KAN YI MAGANA DA JUNA A INTANET

Idan aka zo ta wajen yin bayanin ya ake kulla alaka tsakanin kwamfuta da network har su fitar da sakamakon shafi a intanet sai muce ana amfani da wani ilimi ne wanda ake kira da protocol. Protocol wani ilimi ne da aka rubuta shi wanda zai rika shiga tsakanin kwamfuta da network da kuma shafukan intanet. Wannan protocol shine ya ke zama mai fashin baki tsakanin su. Ita kwamfutar da take da damar shiga intanet ba za ta iya yin magana da damar shigar ba (network) sai idan ta bi ta hanyar shi wannan tsari na protocol haka kuma shafin da ake son a bude ba zai budu ba sai idan shi protocol ya fassarawa browser abin da shafin ya kunsa.

Su wadannan ‘yan aike ko kuma tafinta suna da yawa. Misali akwai wanda ake kira a Turance da Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol ko TCP/IP wannan protocol din shi ke da ilimin sanin yadda zai fassara sakonka da ya fito daga kwamfutarka zuwa kwamfutar da ka bukaci shiga har shafin ya iya budewa.

Sannan kuma akwai dan aike mai suna HTTP ko Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol wannan shine ya ke bayyana a jikin kowane shafin idan aka bude shi kafin ka ba www sai ka ga http:// to shi wannan dan aike ne ko kuma tafinta wanda shi aikin shi shine ya lura yaya shafuka za su bude a jikin browser da kuma yadda ita browser ta ke aikawa da kwamfuta server sakon neman shafi ya bude.

Saboda irin wannan ilimi na protocol da aka tsara a cikinsa ya sanya duk shafin da mutum ya nemi budewarsa zai bude ba tare da ya samu matsala ba. Kasancewar shi protocol din yana tsakiya ne ya kuma jin yaren browser sannan kuma yana gane yaren kwamfuta server.

MENE NE WWW KO WORLD WIDE WEB?

Kusan duk wani shafi da mutum zai kira a intanet sai ya rubuta www kafin ya rubuta sauran sunan. To wadannan harufa guda uku suna nufin world wide web kamar yadda za mu yi kokarin fassara wannan suna a siffance whi www wata matattara ce da ta tattara dukkanin rubuce-rubuce da kuma sautuka da majigi da hotuna da su ke kan intanet. Su kuwa wadannan kayayyaki da aka tara suna cikin wadansu kwamfutoci mabanbanta a kuma wurare mabanbanta a ko’ina a fadin duniya.

Wannan shi ya ke nuna maka cewar shafukan da ka ke budewa a intanet suna ajiye ne a cikin wata kwamfuta ta musamman da aka yi domin su rike ajiya da kuma bayar da damar bude su daga ko’ina a fadin duniya. Su irin wadannan kwamfutoci na musamman ana kiransu da suna Server. Kwamfuta server kwamfutoci ne da suke da karfi da kuma processor manya wanda ake saka musu manhaja na server wanda wannan manhajar take da karfin karbar sakon miliyoyin kwamfutoci ta hanyar network ba tare da ita wanan kwamfuta server ta gajiya ba.

Duk wani abu da aka ajiye a cikin akwatin ajiya na server wanda ya hada da rubutu ko sauti ko hoto ko bidiyo to wannan kaya za su zama abin samuwar duk wanda ya ke da intanet a tare da shi.

URLs KO KUMA LINK (HANYAR SHIGA SHAFI A INTANET)

Kowane irin gida ko kuma shafuka da mutum ya ke son shiga a cikin intanet yana da hanya da ake bi a shige shi. Wannan hanya ita ake kira da link, shi kuwa gida da mutun yake shiga kamar http://www.duniyarcomputer.com kowane gida ya kadaita da suna ne da babu wani gida da yake amfani da shi a duk fadin intanet. Wannan suna da kuma hanyar shigarsa ana kiranshi da URL wato Uniform Resource Locator wannan shine abin da ya ke baiwa mutane damar su kira shi ko gidan a intanet.

Idan kasan adireshin shafi sai ka rubuta shi a jikin browser dinka. Haka kuma ana amfani da Hyper-Link ko kuma wani lokaci a kira shi da link wato hanya domin bude shafi ko tsallakawa daga wannan shafin zuwa wani shafin a intanet. Saboda haka masu amfani da intanet zasu iya tsallakawa daga wannan shafi zuwa wani shafi ko daga wannan gida zuwa wani gida ta hanyar latsa maballin rubutun shudi (blue) da ke jikin shafukan intanet wanda idan mutum ya kai mouse din shi wurin zai canza daga kibiya zuwa hannu ko kuma dan yatsa.

MENE NE BROWSER MENE NE AIKIN TA A INTANET?

Browsers wadansu software ne ko kuma program da suke da alhakin bude duk wani shafi da ke intanet. Kowane shafi da aka ajiye shi a cikin server ana yin amfani da yarene na HTML domin browser ta iya sarrafa shi. Lokacin da mutum ya bude browser ya kira wani shafi a intanet to abin da browser ta keyi sai ta tace wancan yaren HTML zuwa ga zalla abin da mutum ya ke gani a jikin monitor.

To a nan za mu iya cewa browser ita kadai ce application ko software da ta ke iya bude shafukan intanet, sannan kuma ita ce zata iya sanin sakon da server ta aiko zuwa ga mutane.

Microsoft Internet Explorer da Mozilla Firefox da Apple Safari da kuma Google Chrome da Opera Browser sune mafi shaharar browser ga masu amfani da kwamfuta. Kamar yadda Mini Opera da kuma U.C. Browser suka fi shahara ga masu amfani da wayoyin salula.

A kowane lokaci a kan cancanza fasahar wadannan browser din domin inganta da kuma tace yadda za su bude wannan shafuka na intanet. Shi yasa ga duk mutumin da ya ke koyon kirkiran shafukan intanet ya ke samun sakamako daban-daban a kowace irin browser.

Categories
Duniyar Internet

Protocol Me Wannan KALMA take nufi?

Protocol

Wannan kalma ta Protocol tana da matukar mahimmanci ta fannin sadarwa (Communication Technology) ta bangaren da ya shafi Computer. Ita Kalmar Protocol ararriyar kalma ce daga Girkawa wanda take nufin fallen takarda guda, wanda ya kunshi dukkan bayanin da ke cikin littafin wannan falle.

Amma idan muka danganta wannan kalma a ilimi na Computer ko Information Technology, yana da fage na musamman a bangaren cikakkiyar hanyar sadarwa ta Communication. Idan muka dauki ita wannan kalma ta Protocol zamu ga cewar ana samun ta kusan a kowane fage na hanyar isar da sako ko kuma tabbatar da ingantacciyar hanyar aiko da sako daga na’ura zuwa wata na’ura. Kamar TCP/IP wanda ke nufin Transimission Control Protocol kaga an sami kalmar a nan, Haka IP, shima Internet Protocol ita ma ga kalmar a ciki, haka HTTP wato Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol da dai makamantansu.

A misali, ana samun kalmar Protocol a cikin kowace hanyar sadarwa ta computer kamar yadda muka gani a wadanna kalmomi na baya, ko dai a sami tsarin Protocol a device (Dukkan wani abu da yake amfani da wutar lantarki ko kuma batir shi ake cewa device) ko kuma a application.

Idan ka hada computer da Internet lokacin da ka kunna Internet Browser domin fara amfani da wani shafi daga internet to su TCP/IP su suke da alhakin kaiwa da karbar dukkanin abinda mutum ke gani ko ke aikawa.

TCP na nufi Transmission Control Protocol, wato Protocol ne wanda yake da alhakin watsa dukkanin bayanai da ita internet take da shi, wanda shi TCP shine kuma yake iya hada compter ka da  zamu iya cewa dukkanin wani kulla alaka a tsakanin na’urori guda biyu, misali waya da waye, computer da computer ko kuma waya da computer to suna bukatar tsari guda da zai basu damar kulla wannan alaka, to dukkan wani tsari da zai daidaita tsakanin su shine ake cewa Protocol.