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Duniyar Internet

Yaya ake shafukan Intanet suke yin aiki?

Idan ka buɗe shafi a website a Intanet na san kana kallon shafuka ne kamar yadda kake ganin rubutu da hotuna a jikin takarda. A mataki na farko bayyanar da shafin Intanet abu ne mai sauƙi domin mutum ya kiran shafin da yake so ne ta hanyar amfani da abin da muke kira da browser. Za ka umarci kwamfutarka ta bayyanar maka da shafi a Intanet ta hanyar amfani da adireshin da shafin yake (URL). Ita kuma browser ta fito maka da shafin a jikin majigin Kwamfuta. Idan bayanan da kake son ka buɗe suna cikin kwamfutarka ne, to duk abin da ka kira zai fito da sauri, amma idan bayanan suna cikin wata kwamfutar ne to za ka ga bayyanar shafin ya ɗan tsawo kaɗan.

Akwai abubuwa da dama da shafukan Intanet suke yi wanda ko kaɗan shafukan da muka saba gani na takardu da mujallu ba bu yadda za a yi a ce suna yi. A misali babu yadda za a yi ka ga an yi rubutu a ƙarƙashin rubutun an rubuta cewar sauran maganar ko cikakkiyar maganar za a same ta a shafi na 57, kawai da ka taɓa hannunka a jikin wannan lamba ta 57 sai shafin ya buɗe. Babu wannan abu a takardunmu kuma ba kuma a yin tunanin haka za ta yiwu a nan gaba. Haka idan ka buɗe wani ‘fom’ wanda ake son mutum ya cike ya aika da shi zuwa wata ma’aikata, a ce da ya cike shi nan take, form ɗin da kansa ya kai kansa wannan ma’aikata ba tare wani ɓata lokaci ba. Haka na san ba mu taɓa ganin hotuna suna motsi ba a cikin littafi ko kuma mu ji magana tana fitowa daga cikin littafi. Amma duk wannan abubuwan da na lissafa da ma waɗanda suka fi su ana samunsu a jikin shafukan Intanet.

Amma akwai banbanci mai nisa tsakanin shafukan Intanet da kuma shafukan takarda. Domin akwai abubuwa da dama da muke ganin su a shafukan intenet wanda a zahiri muke ganin su amma a ɓoye ba haka suke ba. A misali ba kamar yadda duk abin da ka gani a cikin shafin takarda ba yana cikin wannan shafin ne, da hotuna da rubuce-rubucen da suke cikin shafi duk a shafin yake. To, shafukan Intanet ba haka suke ba, domin akwai abubuwan da yake faruwa a bayan shafukan (backend) wanda kai wanda ka buɗe shafin ba ka sani, sannan kuma ba komai ba ne za ka gan shi a jikin shafin da ka buɗe ka yi tsammanin yana cikin shafin ne gaba ɗaya. A misali zai iya yiwuwa ka kira shafi wanda asalin shafin yana cikin wata Kwamfuta ne a kasar Amurka, hotunan da suke cikin shafin kuma ya kasance suna cikin wata kwamfuka ne da take kasar Jamus, sannan kuma sautin da muke ji yana kasar Brasil, sannan kuma majigin da muke gani ya kasance yana kasar Saudi ne.

Aikin da browser suke yi ya wuce su bayyanar mana da rubutu da hotuna da sauti da muke ji ko gani a jikin talabijin na kwamfutocin mu ko kuma Wayoyinmu. Waɗannan browser suna yin waɗansu ayyuka da suka wuce hankali ga wanda bai san abin da ke faruwa a bayan shafi ba (backend). Domin su browser su suke da alhakin lura da sharuɗɗa da dokoki da wanda ya tsara shafin ya ce haka yake son su bayyana, da kuma abin da yake son masu shiga shafin su gani. Irin waɗannan sharuɗɗa da dokoki su ne wanda su browser kowace iri ce take lura da su. Su kuwa irin waɗannan dokoki wani ilimi ne na musamman da ake koyan shi kuma ake rubuta shi domin ita browser ta iya karanta shi. Shi wannan ilimi da browser take iya karantawa ana kiran shi HTML wato HyperText Markup Language.

To, a nan za mu iya cewar browser wani program ne na Kwamfuta wanda yake iya fassara rubutun da aka yi da dokokin na HTML.

Waɗannan Browser da ake da su suna da yawa amma waɗanda suka fi shahara a wannan lokaci wanda kusan kowa yana amfani da su, sune: Opera, Opera mini, Google Chrome, Intanet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox da kuma UC Browser. Akwai daruruwan brower amma waɗannan sune waɗanda suka fi shahara. To, dukkanin waɗannan program aikin su shi ne su fassarawa Kwamfuta dokoki da ƙa’idojin da wanda ya tsara shafin yake son mutane su gani.

Kamar yadda mai karanta wannan muƙalar yake gani (idan a mujalla kake karantawa) yana ganin akwai waɗansu rubutu waɗanda suke an ɗan kaurara su, wasu kuma na lankwasa su, wasu kuma sun fi wasu girma, duk waɗannan abubuwan da muke gani a takarda idan an yi amfani da MS Word ne aka yi su, bai wuce a ce an saka bold ko italic ba. Amma a wajen tsara shafukan Intanet ba haka abin yake ba, domin su ba italic ko bold ba ne, wasu surkulle na daban ake yi.

Shi wannan ilimin sanin yadda ake shirya shafin Intanet (web design) ilimi ne mai zaman kansa wanda ake koyar da shi a matakai daban-daban da kuma matsayi bayan matsayi. Wanda kowane ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan matakai ana son mai karatu ya san shi sosai kafin ya tsallaka zuwa wani ɓangare.

Ga duk wanda yake son ya ga ya wannan ilimi yake da kuma wani irin ƙoƙarin masu shirya shafukan da kake buɗewa a cikin Intanet suke yi, za ka iya buɗe kowane irin shafi a Intanet sannan ka latsa ɗan yatsan dama na Mouse ‘right click’ sannan za ka ga ‘view source’ sai ka zaɓe shi, zai buɗe maka wani shafi da zai baka bayan shafin abin da ke faruwa a shafukan Intanet.

Wasu shafukan an gina su da babban ilimin shirya shafuka saboda haka ba komai mutum zai gani ba a wancan shafin da ya buɗe, domin akwai ilmomi da dama da ake ɗaurawa a lokacin da ake buɗe shafukan Intanet waɗanda suke taimaka wa shi HTML wajen inganta aikin gina shafukan.

Akwai ilimi da dama waɗanda suke taimaka wa wannan ilimi na HTML domin yauƙaƙa shafin waɗanda suke haɗa XHTML, XML, JAVA Script, PHP, ASP, ASP.Net da ColdFusion. Irin waɗannan ilimin suna da yawa amma kuma waɗannan su suka fi shahara.

Kodayake kowace browser tana da irin yadda take ganin abubuwan da suke ƙunshe na dokoki da kuma ƙa’idojin rubutun shafukan Intanet. Shi ya sa idan mutum ya koyi ilimin yadda ake shirya shafukan Intanet, to yana da kyau duk lokacin da ya zo zai gwada shafukan ya gwada su aƙalla a browser iri huɗu waɗanda suka haɗa da Intanet Explorer, da Mozilla Firefox, da Google Chrome, da kuma Safari.

Darasi na gaba da yardar Allah za mu faɗi hanyoyi da kuma matakai da ake bi domin a shirya shafukan Intanet.

Categories
Duniyar Internet

INTANET A MATAKIN FARKO

Haduwar miliyoyin Kwamfutoci ta daga wurare daban-daban shi ake kira da Intanet. Wadannan kwamfutocin sun hadu ne domin su yi musayar bayanai ga al’umma da ma’aikatu da kungiyoyi ko gwamnatoci ko kuma daidaikun mutane ta hanyar waya.

Wannan yake nuna mana cewar dukkan wata kwamfuta da ake browsing da ita, ita ma bangare ne na intanet. Haduwar taka da ta wancan da ta sauran shi ya sa ake samun intanet kuma musayar bayanan da na ajiye a tawa da wanda wancan ya ajiye a tashi shi ma ai intanet ne.

Hanya mafi shahara da ake amfani da intanet shine ta hanyar amfani da shafuka da ake amfani da su wajen yin mu’amala da mutane. Sannan kuma ana amfani da intanet wajen aikawa da sakonnin imel da kuma karba ko kuma amsa shi imel din. Haka ana amfani da intanet wajen yin magana rubutacciya ko ta sauti (chat). Haka kuma ana amfani da intanet wajen musayar takardu ko kuma rubuce-rubuce.

An fara amfani da intanet ne a karshen shekarar 1960’s wanda sashen tsaron kasar Amurka suka yi amfani domin fadada bayanai da musayarsu a lokacin yakin duniyar na biyu. Amma a wuraren shekarar 2007 sama da mutane biliyan 1.2 aka kiyasta cewar suna amfani da wannan kafa ta intanet.

YA YA AKE HADA KWAMFUTA DA INTANET?

Masu son amfani da intanet zasu iya samun damar shiga intanet ta yin amfani da hanyoyi mabanbanta. Hanyar da ta fi kowace saukin samu da kuma arha wajen biya ga kuma tsananin rashin sauri ita ce tsohuwar hanya da aka yi amfani da ita a zamanin baya wacce ake kira da dialup connection. Shi wannan hanya ce da ake samun intanet ta hannun kamfanonin wayar tangaraho ta hanyar amfani da layin waya da kuma modem na waya.

Hanyar da ta fi sauri da kuma tafiya cikin hanzari shine ta yin amfani da DSL (Digital Subscriber Line). Haka kuma akwai hanyar da ake kira da Cable Modem, ko kuma ta hanyar amfani da Sattelite, ko kuma ta hanyar amfani da ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network). Wani lokaci ma akan yi amfani da hanya mara waya (Wireless) domin a samu damar shiga intanet ba tare da an hada wata kwamfuta da wata kwamfutar ba ta waya ba.

Kamfanin da suke taimakon mu mu samu damar shiga intanet su ake kira da ISP ko Internet Service Providers.

SAURI WURIN BUDEWAR SHAFUKA A INTANET

Sauri wurin budewar shafuka a harkar intanet ya na taka muhummiyar rawa. Domin rashin sauri wurin budewar shafi shi zai kawo tsaiko wurin aikawa da kowane irin sako a intanet. Wanda ya ke amfani da tsohuwar hanya domin samun tsanin shiga intanet (dialup) shafukan ba sa iya budewa da sauri kasancewar shi dialup connection yana tafiya ne a zangon 56 kilobit a cikin dakika daya. Shi kuwa mai amfani da ISDN wajen samun tsanin shiga intanet shafukan sa suna tafiya a saurin zango na 64 zuwa 128 kilobits a cikin dakika daya. Shi kuwa wanda yake amfani da DSL wajen samun tsanin hawan intanet yana fara tafiya a karfin zango na 3 Megabit zuwa 6 Megabits a cikin dakika daya.

Shafukan da aka yi amfani da dialup connection wajen bude su ka iya daukar dakikoki 20 a daidai wannan lokacin wanda ya ke amfani da Cable Modem shi kuma irin wannan shafi zai dauke shi dakika daya ne kacal.

MATASHIYA

ME AKE NUFI DA KBPS KO MBPS?

Kbps na nufin Kilo Bits Per Second. Shi kuwa Mbps na nufin Mega Bits Per Second. Wannan ya na fadawa mai amfani da intanet irin karfin da signal ya ke shigowa cikin kwamfutarsa.

Misali idan aka ce Dialup yana tafiya a karfin 56kbps ana nufin a cikin kowane dakika daya gido 57,591,808 su ke biyo jikin wayar da ta hada kwamfutarka da intanet. To wadannan dige-digen su ne suke taruwa su fitar da abin da ya ke jikin shafin intanet.

Wannan ke nuna maka cewar shafukan da muke budewa wadanda akwai rubutu ko sauti ko bidiyo ko hotuna suna fara shigowa ne a matsayin digo sai su taru sannan su bayyana a cikin shafukan har mu gansu. To wannan digon da ya ke shigowa shi ake kira da bit

Saboda haka saurin shigowar dige-digen iya kuzarin bude shafinka shi yasa wanda yake mafani da DSL ko Cable Modem aka ce yana da karfin ya bayyanar da biliyoyin dige-dige har 3 zuwa 6 na Mbps.

YADDA KWAMFUTOCI MABANBANTA KAN YI MAGANA DA JUNA A INTANET

Idan aka zo ta wajen yin bayanin ya ake kulla alaka tsakanin kwamfuta da network har su fitar da sakamakon shafi a intanet sai muce ana amfani da wani ilimi ne wanda ake kira da protocol. Protocol wani ilimi ne da aka rubuta shi wanda zai rika shiga tsakanin kwamfuta da network da kuma shafukan intanet. Wannan protocol shine ya ke zama mai fashin baki tsakanin su. Ita kwamfutar da take da damar shiga intanet ba za ta iya yin magana da damar shigar ba (network) sai idan ta bi ta hanyar shi wannan tsari na protocol haka kuma shafin da ake son a bude ba zai budu ba sai idan shi protocol ya fassarawa browser abin da shafin ya kunsa.

Su wadannan ‘yan aike ko kuma tafinta suna da yawa. Misali akwai wanda ake kira a Turance da Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol ko TCP/IP wannan protocol din shi ke da ilimin sanin yadda zai fassara sakonka da ya fito daga kwamfutarka zuwa kwamfutar da ka bukaci shiga har shafin ya iya budewa.

Sannan kuma akwai dan aike mai suna HTTP ko Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol wannan shine ya ke bayyana a jikin kowane shafin idan aka bude shi kafin ka ba www sai ka ga http:// to shi wannan dan aike ne ko kuma tafinta wanda shi aikin shi shine ya lura yaya shafuka za su bude a jikin browser da kuma yadda ita browser ta ke aikawa da kwamfuta server sakon neman shafi ya bude.

Saboda irin wannan ilimi na protocol da aka tsara a cikinsa ya sanya duk shafin da mutum ya nemi budewarsa zai bude ba tare da ya samu matsala ba. Kasancewar shi protocol din yana tsakiya ne ya kuma jin yaren browser sannan kuma yana gane yaren kwamfuta server.

MENE NE WWW KO WORLD WIDE WEB?

Kusan duk wani shafi da mutum zai kira a intanet sai ya rubuta www kafin ya rubuta sauran sunan. To wadannan harufa guda uku suna nufin world wide web kamar yadda za mu yi kokarin fassara wannan suna a siffance whi www wata matattara ce da ta tattara dukkanin rubuce-rubuce da kuma sautuka da majigi da hotuna da su ke kan intanet. Su kuwa wadannan kayayyaki da aka tara suna cikin wadansu kwamfutoci mabanbanta a kuma wurare mabanbanta a ko’ina a fadin duniya.

Wannan shi ya ke nuna maka cewar shafukan da ka ke budewa a intanet suna ajiye ne a cikin wata kwamfuta ta musamman da aka yi domin su rike ajiya da kuma bayar da damar bude su daga ko’ina a fadin duniya. Su irin wadannan kwamfutoci na musamman ana kiransu da suna Server. Kwamfuta server kwamfutoci ne da suke da karfi da kuma processor manya wanda ake saka musu manhaja na server wanda wannan manhajar take da karfin karbar sakon miliyoyin kwamfutoci ta hanyar network ba tare da ita wanan kwamfuta server ta gajiya ba.

Duk wani abu da aka ajiye a cikin akwatin ajiya na server wanda ya hada da rubutu ko sauti ko hoto ko bidiyo to wannan kaya za su zama abin samuwar duk wanda ya ke da intanet a tare da shi.

URLs KO KUMA LINK (HANYAR SHIGA SHAFI A INTANET)

Kowane irin gida ko kuma shafuka da mutum ya ke son shiga a cikin intanet yana da hanya da ake bi a shige shi. Wannan hanya ita ake kira da link, shi kuwa gida da mutun yake shiga kamar http://www.duniyarcomputer.com kowane gida ya kadaita da suna ne da babu wani gida da yake amfani da shi a duk fadin intanet. Wannan suna da kuma hanyar shigarsa ana kiranshi da URL wato Uniform Resource Locator wannan shine abin da ya ke baiwa mutane damar su kira shi ko gidan a intanet.

Idan kasan adireshin shafi sai ka rubuta shi a jikin browser dinka. Haka kuma ana amfani da Hyper-Link ko kuma wani lokaci a kira shi da link wato hanya domin bude shafi ko tsallakawa daga wannan shafin zuwa wani shafin a intanet. Saboda haka masu amfani da intanet zasu iya tsallakawa daga wannan shafi zuwa wani shafi ko daga wannan gida zuwa wani gida ta hanyar latsa maballin rubutun shudi (blue) da ke jikin shafukan intanet wanda idan mutum ya kai mouse din shi wurin zai canza daga kibiya zuwa hannu ko kuma dan yatsa.

MENE NE BROWSER MENE NE AIKIN TA A INTANET?

Browsers wadansu software ne ko kuma program da suke da alhakin bude duk wani shafi da ke intanet. Kowane shafi da aka ajiye shi a cikin server ana yin amfani da yarene na HTML domin browser ta iya sarrafa shi. Lokacin da mutum ya bude browser ya kira wani shafi a intanet to abin da browser ta keyi sai ta tace wancan yaren HTML zuwa ga zalla abin da mutum ya ke gani a jikin monitor.

To a nan za mu iya cewa browser ita kadai ce application ko software da ta ke iya bude shafukan intanet, sannan kuma ita ce zata iya sanin sakon da server ta aiko zuwa ga mutane.

Microsoft Internet Explorer da Mozilla Firefox da Apple Safari da kuma Google Chrome da Opera Browser sune mafi shaharar browser ga masu amfani da kwamfuta. Kamar yadda Mini Opera da kuma U.C. Browser suka fi shahara ga masu amfani da wayoyin salula.

A kowane lokaci a kan cancanza fasahar wadannan browser din domin inganta da kuma tace yadda za su bude wannan shafuka na intanet. Shi yasa ga duk mutumin da ya ke koyon kirkiran shafukan intanet ya ke samun sakamako daban-daban a kowace irin browser.