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Duniyar Computer

Garkuwa 10 ga mai amfani da kayan lantarki ya kamata ya sani kuma ya kiyaye.

Mafi yawan mutane da suke amfani da kayan wutar lantarki irin na kwamfuta da waya suna kara fahimta da jin dadin yadda ake yin mu’amala da su, ga sabo da kwarewa cikin amfani da su wanda ya kai a yanzu zaka samu mutum yana iya ajiyar muhimman bayanai da suka shafe shi ko suka shafi kasuwancinsa a cikin wadannan na’urori. Wannan ya kai ga mutum zai iya amfani da katin cire kudi ATM a cikin kwamfutarsa ya yi siyayya a intanet ba tare da yaje bankinsa ba ko kuma ya je kasuwa. Haka mutum zai iya amfani da kananan manhajojin waya ya turawa wani kudi ba tare da ya je jikin ATM ba.

Kullum ana samun hanyoyin kawo sauki a cikin ayyukan mu na yau da kullum, a gefe guda kuma ana samun mutane marasa tsoron Allah suna kokarin ganin sun saci muhimman bayanai da muke ajiyarsu a cikin na’urorinmu.

A wannan darasi da zamu yi zamu fada muku abubuwa guda goma na garkuwa da ya kamata duk wanda yake mu’amala da waya ko computer ya san su kuma ya iya amfani da su.

1 Social Engineering Attacks

Social Engineering Attacks wannan a turance ana magana da hayar da gwanayen fashi da makami da ‘yan dandatsa a kwamfuta suke amfani da shi wurin satar muhimman bayanai a cikin kayan na’ura. Suna amfani da dabaru sosai wurin wofintar da jama’a domin su cuce su, ta hanyar amfani da wasikun bogi ko su yi sojan gona na wani kamfani ko mutane domin su yi cuta.

Saboda haka mu yi takatsantsan da duk wani link da muka yi shakkarsa, ko sakon imel da bamu san waye ya aiko mana ba, ko kuma amsa wayar da za ace ana bukatar taimako ko kuma za a taimake mu. Kodayake yana da kayau mu sani mafi yawan irin wannan cuta ana yin amfani da bayanai na wanda ya sanka ne. Irin hanya da ake amfani da ita ta social engineering attacks ko gwanayen kwamfuta suna iya fadawa sai mu kiyaye.

2 Kulle Waya Da Sabbin Hanyoyi

Saka harufa guda hudu da ake yi a jikin wadansu wayoyi musamman wayoyin iPhones hanya ce mai kyau amma kuma mu sani ana iya amfani da sa a hada irin wadannan lambobi bayan an sace maka waya a iya bude ta shi yasa yake da kyau mutum ya saka garkuwa ta musamman da amfani da wadansu harrufa da lambobi da alama wurin kulle wayarsa, yadda zai yi wahala wani ko da dauke wayar yayi har ya iya bude wayar. Tsare waya ta hanyar sa mata makulli mai kyau na daga cikin kariya a wannan lokaci.

3 Ajiyar Muhimman Bayanai (Back Up)

Kamar yadda da yawa suka sani cewar kwamfuta bata da tabbas shi yasa ake baiwa duk mai amfani da ita shawara ya yi kokari a kalla yana da wani wurin da yake kwashe kayan da yake da su masu muhimmanci yana jiyesu a wani wuri na daban wanda koda kwamfutar ta bace ba zai yi a sarar aikinsa ba.

Duk da cewar akwai manhajoji masu yawa wadanda ake daurasu a cikin kwamfuta ko waya domin su taimaka maka wurin yin wannan ajiyar, yana da kyau ka sani cewar zaka iya samun CD ko DVD da babu komai wato empty ka rika tara irin wadannan muhimman ayyukan a ciki.

A wannan lokacin ai akwai irin su Google Drive da irinsu Microsoft One Drive da ake iya ajiyar irin wannan ayyukan koda rana za ta bace.

4 Saka Ingantattun manhajojin kariya daga cutar kwamfuta

Virus da Malware kodawane lokaci abin tsoro ne, domin da su ake yin amfani wurin satar bayanai a kwamfuta ko kuma lalata manhajoji ko ayyuka ko ma a lalata ita kanta kwamfutar. Shi yasa yana da kyau mu rika yin amfani da antivirus mai kyau da inganci, domin wadansu antivirus software din su ma kansu virus ne, wadansu an kirkiresu ne domin su rika jawo virus, wadansu kuma su aikin da suke yi shi ne yi wa mutum karyar cewa akwai virus a kwamfutar sa. Shi yasa yake da kyau mutum ya rika tambayar hakakin masana game da wani irin anti virus ya kamata in saka a cikin kwamfutata domin wani lokaci mutane sun fi yarda da maganar gamagarin mutane maimaikon masa a kan fanni.

5 Kulle Wireless Router ko Hotspot

Makami na farko da mutane za su iya amfani da shi domin su cutar da kai shine ta yin amfani da budadden hanyar intanet dinka wacce ka ba mutane damar shiga intanet da ita da sanin ko kuma rashin sanin ka. A da sai mai kudi sosai ya ke iya siyan services na intanet ya sake shi a cikin gidansa domin iyalansa su yi amfani da shi. Amma a wannan lokacin kusan duk wanda yake da wayar komai da ruwanki wato Smartphone ya san akwai tsarin da ake amfani da shi domin a saki intanet duk mai wireless ya iyin yin browsing kyauta, wanda ake kira da Hotspot.

A nan abin da muke son jama’a su lura da shi shine su sani cewar idan ka saki wannan Hotspot ba tare da ka saka mishi mukulli ba (password) wani zai iya zuwa ya yi amfani da shi ba tare da saninka ba, abin Allah Ya kiyaye da zai amfani da shi ya yi wani aikin da bai kamata ba, to hukuma idan ta yi binciken IP address waye aka yi amfani da shi za su san naka ne, kuma ba yadda za kayi ka kare kanka, shi yasa ake sa password domin duk wanda zai yi amfani da shi sai ka sanshi.

6 Ba a aikawa da sako mai tsananin sirri a imel sai ta jagwalgwalliyar hanya

Muhimman bayanai kamar bayanai na bankinka, wata lambar ajiyar kudinka ko lambar biyan kudin harajinka ko kuma wani sirrin kasuwancin ka kada ka taba aikawa da shi ta imel sai ka tabbatar da imel dinka yana amfani da jagwalgwalalliyar hanya (Encrypted). Zaka iya yin amfani da manhaja ko tsarin aikawa da jagwalgwallen imel da irin su ProntoMail ko PGP da dai makamantansu.

Yin haka yana taimakawa wurin datse wata hanyar da idan wani ya samu damar yin kutse cikin dakin ajiyar bayanai na imel din wanda ka aikawa da sako ba zai iya sanin me aka aiko ba, haka wadanda suke fashin hanyar imel koda sun sami irin wannan sakon naka ba zai zaman masu mai amfani ba.

7. Kada ka yi amfani da Wi-fi na kowa da kowa sai tare da VPN

Amfani da intanet na kyauta irin a filin jingin sama ko makaranta da dai makamantan wurin da ake bayar da kyatar intanet na Wi-Fi bai cika zama da hatsari ba, ko da yake yana da kyan ka kare kanka daga irin gurbatattun mutane ba sai daga baya ba a zo a ce maka kayi hakuri. Amfani Virtual Private Network ko VPN yana sa ka zama mai amfani da intanet a matsayin wanda ba a sanshi ba, domin yin amfani da Public Wi-Fi wadansu bayanai naka na iya zuwa hannun wani wanda baka sani shi ba. Misali kana amfani da irin wannan tsarin a wani wurin da kowa ya amninta da kowa idan ka ba sauran abokan huldar ka daman amfani da folder ta Domcument dinka da Music dinka to idan ka shigo irin wannan wuri suma irin wadannan za su sami irin wannan dama. Sai a kiyaye.

8 Amfanin da Manhajar Lura da Password (Password Manager)

Akwai hatsari sosai a wurin yin amfani da password irin daya ga dukkan gidaje ko shafuka da kake shiga a intanet. Misali facebook da gmail da yahoo da Instagram ace duk password iri daya ne kake amfani da shi idan zaka shiga. Akwai hatsari domin idan aka gano shi wannan password dinka duk sauran dakunan ka za a iya shige su. Shi yasa mutum ya ke bukatar yayi amfani da mabanbantan password a kowane shafi.

To yin haka kuma kaima yana da matsala a wurinka saboda sha’anin mantuwa, shi yasa kake da bukatar manhaja da ake kiranta da Password Manager wanda ya ke da alhakin lura da duk gidan da ka shiga kuma ka saka username da password shi zai haddace su, koda bayan ka fita daga cikinsu idan ka dawo daga baya zaka sake shiga cikin wannan shafin shi zai zuba maka username din da password din da kanshi.

Amma kuma a nan zamu sake baka wata shawara, ka sani wani littafi da kasan ba zai kai hannun kowa ba, ka rika rubuta username da password din kowane website da kake mu’amala da su domin koda za a samu bacin rana.

9 Amfani da Two-Factor Authentication

Amfani da wannan tsari da ba username da password kadai mutum zai yi amfani da shi ya bude shafinsa ba, ko kuma yin wani cinikakkya online zai da karin amsa wata tambaya ko kuma saka wadansu bayanai na sirri.

A yanzu da yake kullum kara samun hanyoyin tsaro ake yi, to yana da kyau mutum ya yi amfani da wannan tsarin musamman idan kana amfani da shafukan da suke baka da ma ka yi amfani da wannan tsarin na Two-Factor.

Wanda koda ace wayarka ce ta bace ko wani ya sata amma kuma yana tsammanin ya san password dinka idan kana amfani da tsarin 2FA to ba zai iya shiga cikin wayar ba. Irin wannan tsarin duk wanda yake amfani da online banking ko irin su remita zai baka labari.

10 Duba doka amfani da Manhajojin Waya da Security Settings kodawane lokaci

Yana da kyau duk mai amfani da na’uara ya sani kodawane lokaci kamfanin da suke kirkiran manhajoji suna sabunta dokokin amfani da su zuwa wanda zai yi musu dadi da kuma kara musu tsaro.

Shi yasa yake da kyau mu rika shiga cikin shafukan da suke tara bayanai na dokokin aiki da su domin mu sansu kuma mu san mene ne suka canza ko suka kara domin kada su rika daukar bayanan mu suna aikawa da shi hukumomin tsaro alhali sun ce zasu rika yin haka mu ba mu sani ba.

Haka wurin da ake seta manhajoji ko shafuka yana da kyau shima mu rika ziyartar shi domin shima akan samu sauye-sauye da kare-kare da ya kamata mu sani domi sake tsare na’urorinmu.

Misali irin su facebook, twitter da google kodawane lokaci suna kokarin kara kawo sababin matakan tsaro amma kuma suna ba mutum zabi ne, to kaga idan ba muna karantasu ba ne ko kuma ziyartar irin wannan shafuka ba babu yadda za ayi mu sani.

Da fatan wadannan abubuwa guda 10 da na lissafo zasu taimaka mana wurin kara tsare na’uronmu. Kada a manta da liking page dinmu na facebook da twitter da instagram da youtube domin ci gaba da kawo muku abubuwa masu muhimmanci.

Categories
Duniyar Computer

Kurakurai Goma (10) Da Sababbin Masu Amfani Da Kwamfuta Suke Yi

Ga jerin gwanon kurakurai goma da masu koyon kwamfuta suke yi da kuma yadda za a guje wa afkawa irin waɗannan kurakurai.

1. RASHIN ADANA AYYUKA MASU MUHIMMANCI

Babban kuskuren da ake samu shi ne rashin adana ayyuka masu muhimmanci. A yanzu, akwai hanyoyin daban-daban da za a iya adana muhimman ayyuka da babu wani dalili da zai hana ka adana ayyukanka kafin ka rasa su.

2. DANNA CI-GABA (Next) KO EH (ok) BA TAREDA KARANTA ƘA’IDOJINTA BA

Saboda amfani da yanar gizo ke sa mutane rashin haƙuri wajen karanta ƙa’idoji kafin danna ci gaba (next) ko eh (ok) amma mafiyawancin masu koyo suna danna ci gaba (next) ko eh (ok) ba tare da karanta ƙa’idojin yarda da kuma tabbatar da sun cike akwatin (check box) ba. Ka tabbatar ka karanta ƙa’idojin kafin ka yarda don gudun shigar da abubuwa marasa amfani.

3. RASHIN AJIYE AIKI:

A lokacin da ka ke aikin ka a yanar gizo ko kai tsaye, ka tabbatar kana ajiye aikin (saving) a duk bayan minti biyu zuwa biyar saboda za a iya rasa aikin sanadiyyar samun ɗaukewar wuta ko yankewar intanet ko maƙalewar manhaja, duk abin da ka yi ya zama babu.

4. KASHE KWAMFUTA TA HANYAR DA BAI DACE BA

Ba kowa ba ne ya iya kashe kwamfuta ta hanyar da ta dace ba, saboda sabo da amfani da smart phones da tablets kafin fara amfani da kwamfuta, ita kwamfuta Idan za ka kashe ta, kana buƙatar ka ajiye ayyukanka (save), ka rufe manhajojin da suke a buɗe sa’annan ka kashe ta yadda ya dace.

5. Buɗe saƙonin Imel

Hattara da saƙon imel ɗin da kake kokwanto domin mafi yawancin mugayen mutane suna amfani da wannan hanyar ne don cutar da kwamfutocinmu ta hanyar saƙonnin da kake karɓa daga ‘yan’uwa ko abokanai da kuma sauran mutane.

6. KIYAYE FAƊAWA CIKIN WAƊANNAN MATSALOLIN: PHISHING, SPAM DA KUMA CHAIN MAIL PHISHING

Ka kassance masani a kan yadda masu kai wa kwamfutarka hari ta hanyar dabarar binciko bayanai a intanet, don kada ka kasance daga cikin waɗanda za su faɗa cikin waɗannan haɗura.

SPAM

Mafi yawancin spam na samu wa ne daga mugayen mutane ko kwamfutoci masu illa, idan kaga irin waɗannan saƙon goge su shi ne mafita, saboda idan a ka maida musu saƙon shi ke sa miyagu ko ‘yan dandatsa (hackers) su san lalai akwai mai wannan adireshin kuma su cigaba da turo na wasu saƙonnin ko su raba addreshin ga sauran mugaye ‘yan uwansu.

CHAIN MAIL

Domin kiyaye kanka da kuma ‘yan uwanka daga samun wata matsala a cikin saƙonsu, sai ka kiyaye haɗa kan ka da wasu chain mail. Idan kuma ka samu wata chian mail kuma kana tsoro, to ka tabbatar da shi kafin ka tura wa ɗan uwanka.

7. SAUKARWA DA SHIGAR DA GURƁATATTUN MANHAJOJI A KWAMFUTA

A yanzu, mafi yawancin abun da ke ɓata kwamfutocinmu shi ne saukar ma ta da manhaja mara inganci. Muna saukar da manhaja ba tare da mun tabattar da ingancin ta ba ko kuma manhaja ta kyauta da ake bayarwa. Mu kula da wannan domin wasu suna zuwa da abin da zai iya lalata maka kwamfutarka (computer virus) don haka mu kula wajen saukarwa da shigar da manhaja a kan kwamfutanmu.

Domin saukar da manhaja kana buƙatar waɗannan ƙa’idojin :

WAJEN SAUKARWA

Mu kiyaye wajen saukar da manhaja domin mugayen mutane suna saukar da manhaja ingantattu su mayar da su gurɓatattun manhaja su ajiye shi da sunan shi domin su gurɓata maka kwamfuta.

MANHAJAR SAUKAR DA MANHAJOJI (DOWNLOAD MANAGER)

A kiyaye wurin saukar da manhaja ta hanyar amfani da wata manhajar saukarwa da mafi yawancin kamfanoni ke bayarwa, domin mafi yawa suna zuwa tare da matsaloli da zai iya cutar da kwamfuta.

GUJE WA SAUKAR DA TALLACE-TALLACE A SHAFUKA

A kula da yawanci tallace-tallacen da ake sanyawa a shafukan da ake iya saukar da manhajoji. Wasu ana sawa ne don jawo hankalin mutane domin su samu sauƙin samun manhaja. Su kuma suna amfanin da hanyar ne wurin samun kuɗi ko kuma goya virus don su illata kwamfutocin mutane.

GUJE WA SHAFUKAN DA SUKE SAUKA KAI TSAYE

Ka da ka yarda da wasu abubuwa da suke sauka a kwamfutarka kai tsaye ba tare da sanin ka ba, wanda yawancin shafuka suke buƙata ka sabunta ko ka saukar, wanda idan babu waɗannan shafin ba zai buɗe ba.

8. RASHIN SABUNTA (UPDATING) MANHAJA DA OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) NA ZAMANI

Akodayaushe ana samun sababbin manhajoji da operating system, sabunta su na hana samun matsalolin domin suna zuwa tare da tsaro, a duk lokacin da sabon manhaja ta fito ana samun masu duba kuskuren su. Sabuntawa zai sanya ayyuka su zama cikin tsaro.

9. AJIYE KWAMFUTA CIKIN TSARO

A yayin da ka haɗa kwamfutar ka a jikin soket, laptop da smartphone da tablet kana buƙatar tsarin kare kwamfutar ka daga samun matsala ta hanyar amfani da ‘yar karamar na’urar ta ce wuta (surge), yana taimaka wa wajen kare kwamfutarka a kan matsala ta wuta idan ta zo da ƙarfi.

A wurin amfani da desktop ana amfani da UPS a kan kwamfutarka, shi wannan UPS ɗin yana hana ɗaukewar kwamfuta a yayin samun ɗaukewar wuta na tsawon minti goma zuwa sama da haka.

10. SAYEN KAYAYYAKIN KWAMFUTA WANDA BA NA TA BA

Mafi yawancin kwamfutocin mu suna amfani da hardwares ko kuma pheripherals wanda zai ɗauki irin wannan device ɗin, misali kamar kwamfutar apple ba ta ɗaukar kowace irin hardware wanda ba nata ba ko kuma V.S PC kwamfuta da PC kwamfuta da take amfani da linux ko windows (os) wadda ko wannensu yana amfani da hardware ɗin shi ne.

A yayin sayen hardware ko haɓɓaka shi ka tabbatar komai ya zama na wannaan kwamfutar domin cika duk wani ƙa’idojin da ake buƙata na operating system.

Categories
Duniyar Computer Tsaro

Computer Virus – Cikakkun bayanai akan yadda yake yin ta’adi a cikin na’ura

Bayyanar virus na computer ya yawaita ne ko ma ace ya bayyana ne a kusan shekarar 1980, wanda a gabanin wadannan shekaru babu wanda ya san wani abu mai suna virus. Akwai tunanin wasu dalilai guda uku da ake ganin su suka sa aka kirkiri virus, wadannan dalilai kuwa sune:

1. Dalili na farko shine a baya ba kowane mahaluki bane ya san ma akwai wata abu computer ba, wasu sukan ji labarin ta a gidajen yada labarai, sai a cikin shekarar 1980 a lokacin da aka samu yawaitar irin wadannan na’urori da muke ganin su a ko ina a fadin duniyan nan, irin wadanda muke ganinsu a gidajenmu da ofisoshinmu da asibitocinmu da dai sauran makamantansu. Su wandannan irin na’urori sune wadanda ake kiransu da Personal Computer ko PC a takaice wato (Na’ura mallakinka).

Su kuwa wadancan na’urori na asali wanda ba ka iya ganisu a gidaje da wurare da muka ambata (saboda girmansu), basu ma da yawa da har wani zai iya cewa ya gansu, ba kowane wuri ake samunsu ba illa manya-manyan ma’aikatun gwannati, gwannatin ma ba kowacce ba sai ta kasashen da suka ci gaba.  To a cikin wannan shekara ta 1980 ita ce  shekarar da duniya ba za ta manta ba musamman Duniyar Computer, domin a wannan shekarar ne kamfanoni irin su IBM (International Business Machine) da kamfani irin su Apple Macintosh, suka fara kirkiran ita wannan na’ura mallakinka (PC) wacce ake ganinta a yanzu. To, a wannan shekara sai aka samu na’ura ta yawaita a duniya, ganin na’ura ta yawaita sai wasu mutane suka fara kirkirar wadansu program domin su bata ita na’urar.

2. Dalili na biyu shine; lokacin da aka fara amfani da hanyar amfani da na’ura wajen kiran waya, mutane suna amfani da Bulleted Board tare da moderm domin sauko da kananan programs daga Internet.  A wannan lokacin saboda samun wannan sabuwar fasaha (domin a baya ba a iya yin haka) sai mutane suka rinka yin amfani da wanna dama suna dauko Games daga internet suna sasu a cikin na’urorinsu. Duk a wannan lokaci ne aka samu bayyanar wadansu programs kamar Word Processing Program da Spreadsheet da makamantan irin wadannan shaharrrun programs. Bulleted Board, ana amfani da shi a goya masa wani tsarin program wanda ake kira da (Trojon Horse). Trojan Horse program ne da yake da suna mai dadi, kuma yana kumshe da bayanai, idan aka sauko da wani abu daga Bulleted Board wanda dama daga Internet yake wannan kafa idan aka yi rashin sa’a akwai Trojan Horse a kumshe da shi sai kawai ya shiga na’urarka ya fara ta’adi ko kuma ya fara abinda bai kamata ba. Irin abubuwan da zai yi shine ya share dukkan abinda ke cikin kwakwalwar na’urarka mai amfani.

3. Dalili na uku da ya taimaka wajen kirkiro Virus shine bayyanar Floppy Disk. A wancan lokacin a shekarar 1980 program kanana ne, wanda a wancan lokacin OS da wasu program za su iya shiga cikin Floppy Disk daya ko biyu (girman Floppy Disk shine 3.5Mb), to, kaga duk abinda aka ce program ne kuma ya shiga cikin Floppy ashe kankantarshi ta kai a duba. A baya na’urori basu da manyan kwakwalwa (Hard Disk) wadansu  idan zaka tashe su sai ka sa musu Floppy Disk din sannan ta tashi kuma dukkanin programs da za ka yi amfani dasu suna cikin shi ne. To, tunda OS zai iya zaunawa a cikin Floppy Disk, shine suka kirkiri Virus don ya lalata OS din ko kuma program da aka ajiye a cikin sa.

A wancan lokaci su kansu Virus ba wai kamar yanzu bane, suma basu wuce wasu layika guda biyu ko fiye da haka ba wanda ake rubuta su, a daurasu a jikin wasu shahararrun program kamar Word Processing da wasu shahararrun games. (da zarar sun fahimci cewar wannan program mutane sun damu da suyi amfani da shi, sai kawai su dauro Virus da zai bata shi). To, idan mutum ya shiga yanar giza (internet) ya shiga sashen Bulleted Board ya ga wani sabon program ko games, ya ga irin aikin da yake yi, idan ya gamsu da aikin shi, idan ya sauko da shi cikin na’urarshi domin yayi aiki da shi tunda shi kan shi game din karami ne, sannan Code da aka goya mashi karami ne sai kawai kaga na’urarka tana wasu ‘yan rashin hankula da baka gane mashi ba.  Wani sa’i ma shi program din ba shi ake daurawa Virus din ba, a shafukan yanar gizon ake daurawa da zarar kayi amfani da Floppy ka dauko wani program sai ya biyo cikin Floppy din sannan ya fara ta’adi a naurar ka, ta hanyar duba dukkanin abinda yake cikin naur’ar, idan ya ga program da zai iya lalatawa sai ya fara aiki. Wani lokacin ma, ba wai zai lalata wasu files naka bane, zai ta maimaita kanshi ne, har sai ya tsayar da ita na’urar, ko kuma ya dauki wani file guda ya ta budeshi da yawa a ko wane lokaci (makar Raila Odinga). Ba tare da ka lura ba sai virus ya cika na’urarka. Daga cikin abin tsoro da shi Virus, shine idan wani yazo da Floppy Disk, ya kawo maka aiki ne, ko kuma ya zo zai dauki aiki a cikin na’urar kane, idan har akwai wannan Virus to sai ya fada cikin wannan Floppy Disk ba tare da mai shi ya sani ba. Idan yaje ya sa a cikin na’urar shi shima sai naurar shi itama ta kamu da irin wannan cutar. Da wannan ne Virus ya yadu a duniya cikin kankanin lokaci.

Mutane suna fahimtar hanyar da za su tsare ko kuma magance na’urar su, su kuma gwanayen virus suna kara fito da wata sabuwar hanyar yada shi da salon yadda zai rinka lalata kayan na’ura. Daga cikin nasarori da suka samu wajen cutarwar shine, dama da suka samu ta su shigar da Virus cikin Memory na na’ura yadda ba sai ka tashi program da ta kamu da Virus ba, sannan shi virus ya fara ta’adi ba, ko kuma yada kanshi ba. Idan dai har wannan Virus ya sami damar kutsawa cikin Memory na Computer to an gama, zai ci gaba da yada kanshi matukar wannan na’urar tana kunne ne. hakan ya kara ba Virus karfi da ikon yaduwa, mutane kuma sun fara kara damuwa da irin ta’addanncin da Virus yake yi.

Shi kuwa Virus manufarshi, shine ya lalata ko ya jikkata wani program (domin wani virus ana aiko shi musamman domin ya lalata wani program) da na’ura take amfani da shi wajen yin wani muhimmin aiki. A misali akwai wurin da ka ke kiranshi da Boot Sector (inda na’ura take ajiye dukkan kayan da take bukata wajen tashi ko kashe kanta). To, wasu virus nan kawai suke nufa, kuma aiken da akan yi masu kenan da zarar suka samu shiga cikin Boot Sector sai suyi fata-fata da wadannan kayan, idan suka gama, kai kuma ka gama aiki a wannan lokaci ka kashe ta, to, idan ka dawo daga baya domin ka tashe ta, sai ta ce dauke ni inda ka ajiye ni, ma’ana ba zata sake tashi ba balle ka ci gaba da aikin ka. Daga mahimmmancin wannan Boot Sector yana daga cikin program da suke gayawa sauran program da suke cikin  na’urarka ga yadda zasu yi aiki da sadda ake bukatar aikin su.

Wani abin karin haushi shine, duk sa’adda mutum ya dauki Floppy Disk ya sa a cikin na’urar da take da irin wannan Virus, sannan ya dauke shi ya sa shi a cikin na’urar ka da kake bukatar aiki da shi to ba makawa sai ya sa ma na’urar taka wannan cuta. Shi yasa zaka ga an fi samun Virus a Jami’o’i da shagunan aiki na na’ura domin a wuraren ne aka fi amfani da shi Floppy Disk din wajen dauka da kuma kai ayyuka daban-daban.

To, da Virus din da yake shiga Boot Sector ko wanda yake zuwa a like da program, maganar ta kau, domin a wancan shekarun na baya ana daukan program a cikin Floppy kawai kamar yadda muka fada a baya, wanda muka ce hatta OS yana shiga cikin Floppy daya ko biyu. Amma a wannan lokaci, ka kwantar da hankalinka, domin a yau dukkanin programs da ake amfani dasu sun fi karfin su shiga cikin Floppy Disk saboda girmansu. Maganar Virus dake shiga Boot Sector itama ta kau, domin a wannan lokacin dukkanin kamfanoni da suke yin OS suna hado shi ne tare da wani program na musamman wanda shi ke da alhakin lura da Boot Sector. Maganar daukan Virus ta hanyar Floppy Disk itama ta kau damin a wannan lokaci da wuya kaga wani yana amfani da shi, kuma gashi dukkanin programs da mutum zai siya zaka tarar da shi a cikin CD ko DVD yake wanda su kuma a tsarinsu babu wani abu da zai iya shiga cikin su. Sai dai idan su kamfanin da suka yi program din su suka hada da virus (ko kuma irin program na sata masu zuwa tare da crack). Amma da matukar wahala virus ya shigo maka na’ura a sanadiyar sa program da yazo a cikin CD ko DVD. Ko da yake a yanzu akwai makwafin Floppy Disk wanda shima yana saurin yada Virus shine Flash Drive, domin yana aiki ne kamar yadda Floppy kuma shi yafi Floppy matsala  domin shi yakan iya daukan ko wane irin virus sannan zai iya daukar virus masu yawa daban-daban.

Amma ka sani, shima virus da yake shiga memory ko Boot Sector, ba wai basu iya shiga bane, suna iya shiga sai dai basa iya yada kansu kamar yadda suke iya yi a baya, domin kulawa ta musamman da aka bashi domin kare na’ura daga lalacewa.

EMAIL VIRUSES

Salon yada virus ya sami sabon salo a shekarar 1999 a lokacin da wani virus wanda aka turoshi ta Email a hade da Ms Word File wanda ake kiranshi da Melissa.

A watan March 1999 aka kirkiri Melissa Virus wanda aka hada shi da file na Ms Word, shi kuma Melissa ga yadda yake yin nasa salon cutarwar.

Wani mutum ne ya kirkiro Melissa sannan ya daurashi a Ms Word Document sannan ya daurashi a internet a wani dandali na Newsgroup, wuri ne da mutane suke shiga domin ana zuba abubuwan karuwa na n’aura kamar bayanai masu mahimmanci da mutum zai yi amfani da su wajen gyara ko koyon wani aiki da dai makamantansu. To, kamar sauran masu kirkirar Virus shima wannan mutumin yayi amfani da wurin da ya daura wannan document wanda yake kumshe a cikin wani tsarin rubutu dake hade da Macro wanda su kamfanin da suke yin Ms Word program sun ba mai amfani da program din damar ya kara wata fasaha ta musamman wadda mutum idan zai iya sai program din shi ya rinka yin wani aiki na musamman, wanda sauran irin wannan program baya yi. To, tunda mutane sun saba shiga Interner kuma suna shiga dandalin Newsgroup, kuma wani abu mai kama da virus ba a taba turashi a jikin Ms Word file ba sai kawai mutane suka rinka saukar da shi cikin na’uririnsu domin suga me wannan document ke kunshe da shi.

Ya Melissa Virus yake Ta’adi?

Da zarar mutum ya bude wannan document, ba zai ga komai ba kuma ba zai fahimci abinda yake faruwa ba, amma a karkashin kasa shi wannan document sai ya warware wannan Macro, sannan ya nufi inda ka ke ajiye adireshi da sunanyen mutane a na’urarka (wanda da yawa wasu daga cikin mutane a wannan kasa basu san akwai inda zaka ajiye lambobin waya da sunaye da hotuna da lambar email da makamantan su ba a Computer). Idan har kana ajiye irin wadannan sunaye sai Melissa ya dauki sunayen mutane hamsin (50) daga ciki, ya dauko wannan document wanda yake da wannan virus ya aika wa mutanen nan guda hamsin (50) kuma ya sa naka adireshin a jikin email din yadda duk wanda yaga wannan email yasan wane shine ya aiko da sakon email din, kuma kai amintacce ne a wurin shi ya san ba zaka aiko da virus ba. Ba wai ya tsaya haka ba ke nan, suma wadancan mutane hamsin (50) da ya aikawa, suma zai dauki mutane hamsin suma ya goya wannan document ya aika musu, to da haka Melissa Virus ya cika duniya. Masana sunce a tarihin virus ba a taba samun virus da yada yadu a dan kankanin lokaci kuma ya cika duniya kamar Melissa ba.

Daga cikin manufofin wadanda suka kirkiri Melissa shine manyan kamfanoni su daina amfani da email, hakarsu ta cimma ruwa, domin lokacin da aka gano irin ta’adi da Melissa yake yi, dole yasa manyan kamfanoni suka kashe sashen akwatunan email din su, domin kada Melissa ya hau kan na’urorin su (su kuwa na’urorin su ba wanda yasan yawan mutanen da suke amfani da ita).

Kamar yadda muka fada a baya, shi wannan Virus na Melissa ana amfani da Macro na Ms Word Document, wanda shi wannan Macro, Code ne bai wuce ‘yan layika ba da ake rubuta shi ta hanyar VBA (Visual Basic for Application) wannan sashe ne na rubuta program mai sauki domin karawa dukkan wani application na Microsoft Word karfi wajen zartar da aiki na musamman. Sai suka yi amfani da shi suka goya Macro, wanda da zarar ka bude wannan document domin karanta abinda ke cikin sa, sai kawai ya fara ta’adi. Ko da yake ba wai Melissa Virus shi kadai ne Virus da aka turo shi ta hanyar email ba.

I LOVE YOU VIRUS

I love you Virus; virus ne da aka same shi a ranar 4 ga watan Mayu, 2000 bayan kamar shekara daya da wata daya da bayyanar Melissa. Shi wannan Virus na I Love You yasha ban-ban da Melissa domin shi email za a aiko maka a jikin email din akwai attachment, to shi wannna attachment yana kumshe da wasu rubutu (code) kanana, ko kuma program dan karami wanda da zarar ka matsa mouse sau biyu (Double Click), sai ya fara duba dukkanin mutanen da suke cikin matattarar adireshinka dukkan su ya dauke su, ya aika da Virus sannan ya fara cinye maka mahimman files da program da suke cikin na’urar. Karfin I Love You Virus ya kai inda zai kai da tsayar da na’urar gaba dayanta ya zama ba zata iya motsawa ba. To, hakan shine abu mafi sauki da Virus zai iya yi.

A dalilin haka, kamfanin Microsoft wanda sune wadanda aka fi amfani da kayansu wajen Typing da makamantansu, suka sanya wani tsari, wanda shi wannan tsari zai hana duk wani Virus da akayi amfani da VBA aka rubuta shi kuma aka sashi tare da daya daga application dinsu zai kare shi daga Virus. Wannan tsari ana kiran shi da Micro Virsus Protection. Wanda da zarar wannan bangaren a kunne yake (wato ance yayi aiki) to babu wani Virus da zai taho ta wannan hanya ya kuma cutar da naurar ka.

Amma abin bakin ciki da haushi, mutane suna mantawa ko kuma nuna halin ko in kula da wannan MVP, idan ya bayyanar da sako cewar “hattara da wannan document akwai VBA a jikin shi” maimakon mutane su duba me sakon ya kunsa, sai kawai ayi burus da shi, wasu ma da zarar irin wannan sako ya damesu sai su nemi yaya ake kashe sakon domin kada ya kara bayyana a gaba. To wannan yana daya daga cikin irin kura-kuran da mutane suke yi, a lokacin da suka ga wani sako ya dame su sai su nemi sanin abinda wannan sako ya kunsa ba ayi halin ko-in-kula ba. Ya kamata a kula da kyau a kuma yi Hattara!!!

WASU HANYOYIN CUTARWA

Virus da Worm (Tsutsotsi) anfi sanin su a wajen cutar da na’ura, amma ba su kadai bane abubuwan da ke iya jawo matsala ga lafiyar na’urar ka ba. Malware shima daya ne daga cikin abubuwan da suke iya cutar da na’ura da kuma lafiyarta. Ga kadan daga cikin wasu Malware da suke iya cutar da lafiyar na’ura.

Adware; aikin wannan shine ya rinka bijiro maka da tallace-tallace a jikin na’urarka daga internet, wanda ba kai bane kace kana bukatar irin wadannan tallace-tallace.

Spyware; shi kuma irin wannan virus abinda yake yi shine ya na binciken mahimman bayanai na na’urarka ko kuma sirri da ka ajiye cikin na’urar kamar Password, Document da kamar lambobin sirri na Credit Card da dai makamantan abubuwa masu mahimmanci wanda ya kebantu gare ka. Idan ya bincika bawai zai tsaya nan bane a’a, zai aikawa da wadanda suka kirkireshi domin suyi amfani da shi, ko kuma su sace maka kudadenka da suke banki (tunda ana e-banking).

Hijackers; Wannan virus ya kwace ragamar sarrafa na’urarka, ya zama da zarar ta tashi, to, baka da damar aiki da ita zai zama kamar yadda zambi suke yi a cikin film babu abinda yake sarrafasu illa lafiyayyen mutum.

Dialers; Wannan virus ne da zai tilastawa na’urarka tarinka kiran wayoyi idan kayi rigista da wani kamfani da kake amfani da shi wajen amsa waya a na’ura. Misali kamar kana amfani da Modem na MTN sai ya kasance kuma bayan amfani da shi wajen internet kuma zaka iya amfani da shi ka kira. To shi wannan virus kawai sai yayi amfani da wannan modem ya buda adress book na na’urarka ya rinka kiran lambobi kudin ka na tafiya.