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Sharhin Littafin “Kwamfuta” Na Malam Salisu Hassan (Webmaster)

Sharhin Abdullahi Salihu Abubakar (Baban Sadik) daga jaridar Aminiya https://aminiya.dailytrust.com.ng/sharhin-littafin-kwamfuta-na-malam-salisu-hassan-webmaster-1/

A ranar Asabar, 28 ga watan Disamba 2019 ne aka kaddamar da littafin Malam Salisu Hassan wanda aka fi sani da “Webmaster” a garin Kaduna. Malam Salisu Hassan dai Malami ne mai karantar da ilimin kwamfuta a shahararriyar makarantarsa da ke unguwar Sanusi mai suna: “Duniyar Computer”, kuma mawallafin mujallar “Duniyar Computer” dai har wa yau.  Wannan littafi nashi, duk da cewa akwai wasu littattafai da aka rubuta a baya kan kwamfuta cikin harshen Hausa, sai dai, a hukumance, ba a samu irin wannan ba. Hakan ya faru ne saboda dalilai da dama.  Na farko dai shi ne littafi mafi girma da aka taba wallafawa a wannan fanni.  Shi ne littafi mai dauke da lambar jerin littattafan da aka rubuta a kasar nan, wato: ISBN.  Kuma littafi ne da ya kandamo abubuwa masu muhimmanci kan ilimin kwamfuta da hakikanin abubuwan da ta kunsa.

Littafin, wanda aka yi wa suna da: “Kwamfuta – Ilimin da Kowa Ke Bukata”, mai shafuka 353, yana dauke ne da babuka 11, a karshensa kuma aka bibiyi babukan da jerin kalmomin kwamfuta guda 500 tare da ma’anoninsu. Ina daga cikin wadanda suka yi bitar wannan littafi makonni uku kafin kaddamar da shi.  Don haka na ga dacewar rairayo muhimman abubuwan da littafin ya kunsa, don fa’idar masu karatun wannan shafi.  Hakika kaddamar da wannan littafi ba karamin ci gaba bane ga al’ummar Hausa a wannan zamani.  Ko ba komai dai, zai kara fadada fahimtar al’ummar Hausawan wannan zamani kan fasahar sadarwa na zamani; domin kwamfuta ita ce asalin dukkan wani ci gaba da ake samu a wannan fanni a duniya yanzu.

Malam Salisu ya kasa littafin ne zuwa bangare uku, duk da cewa bai bayyana hakan ba a zahiri ko a rubuce.  Bangaren farko ya kunshi Mukaddima ne. Wannan shi ne babi na daya, kuma mawallafin littafin bai yi kasa a gwiwa ba wajen bayanin ma’anar kwamfuta, da nau’ukan bayanan da take mu’amala da su, irin su “data” da “information”.  Wadannan su ne nau’ukan bayanan da kwamfuta ke mu’amala da su.  Ko dai ya zama bayanai ne da ake shigar mata, take sarrafawa don bayar da ma’ana; wannan shi ake kira “data”.  Sai kuma nau’ukan bayanai sarrafaffu, wadanda duk mai karatu zai iya gane me suke nufi kuma ya fitar da hukunci daga abin da suka kunsa.  Wadannan su ake kira “information”.  Daga nan ya yi bayani kan irin ayyukan da kwamfuta ke iya gudanarwa.  A karshen babin ya kawo tarihin kwamfuta a takaice.  A Babi na biyu kuma mawallafin ya yi bayani kan karkasuwan kwamfuta ne ta amfani da ma’aunai daban-daban – tun daga farkon kwamfutar da aka fara kerawa zuwa zamanin da muke ciki yanzu.

Bangare na biyu na daukene da babuka guda shida (babi na uku zuwa babi na takawas).  Wannan bangaren ne ya yi bayani filla-filla kan gangar-jikin kwamfuta, wato: “Hardware” Kenan.  A Babi na uku mawallafin ya yi bayani kan ma’anar kalmar “Hardware”, da bangarorinta irin su na’urorin shigar da bayanai, da na fitarwa, da na aiwatar da sadarwa, da ma’adana, da bangaren sauti da na wutar lantarki duka.  Bayan wannan gabatarwa kan gangar-jikin kwamfuta a Babi na uku, sai mawallafin ya bibiyi babi na hudu zuwa na takwas da bayani filla-filla kan wadancan bangarori da ya fara bayaninsu a babi na uku.  Misali, a Babi na hudu ya yi bayani kan bangarorin shigar da bayanai ne ga kwamfuta, wato: “Input Debices”. Wannan ya hada da allon shigar da bayanai (Keyboard), da beran kwamfuta (Mouse), da na’urar daukan hoton bayanai (Scanner), sai kuma na’urorin shigar da sauti ko murya.  A Babi na biyar kuma marubucin ya fayyace bayani kan bangarorin fitar da bayanai daga kwamfuta, wato: “Output Debices”. Na’urorin sun hada da talabijin kwamfuta (Monitor), da na’urar haskaka bayanai (Projector), da lasafika, da na’urar dab’i, da dukkan nau’ukan wadannan na’urori.

Don fahimtar da mai karatu tsari da hanyoyin sadarwa tsakanin kwamfuta da sauran na’urori da kayayyakin sadarwa, marubucin ya kulla taken Babi na Bakwai da suna: “Communication Debices”.  A nan ne mai karatu zai ga ma’ana da nau’ukan hanyoyin sadarwa da kwamfuta ke dauke da su, tare da tsarin musayar bayanai tsakanin kwamfuta da sauran kayayyakin sadarwa na zamani. A wannan babi ne har wa yau mai littafin ya yi bayanin matakan tsarin sadarwa a kwamfuta da suka hada da: shigar da bayanai da sarrafa bayanai, da fitar da bayanai, sai kuma adana bayanai. Wadannan su ne asalin ayyukan kwamfuta, kuma wadannan matakai take amfani da mu’amala da sauran kayayyaki da na’urorin sadarwa a babin sadarwa.  Daga cikin abubuwa muhimmai da marubucin ya tabo a wannan babi akwai hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani, irin su fasahar Imel, da fasahar Intanet da hanyoyin aikawa da sauti ko amo ta hanyar igiyar wayar sadarwa (Wired Connection) da ta wayar-iska (Wireless). Wadannan bayanai duk Malam Salisu ya yi su ne ta la’akari da na’urar sadarwa ta zahiri.

A Babi na Takwas wanda shi ne babi na karshe a kashi na biyu na littafin, mawallafin ya kawo bayani ne kan mahadar sadarwa, wato: “Ports,” kamar yadda ya ambaci taken babin a farko.  Fahimtar wannan babi na bukatar misalai sosai.  “Port” mahada ce da kwamfuta ke amfani da ita wajen karbar bayanai rubutattu ko na sauti ko bidiyo. Duk da cewa su ma bangarorin kwamfuta ne na zahiri, amma suna da lambobi da babbar manhajar kwamfuta ke amfani da su wajen karba ko mika bayanai ga mai amfani da kwamfuta. Misali, idan kana son hawa Intanet, kwamfutarka na amfani da dayar hanyoyi biyu ne na zahiri; ko dai ta amfani da igiyar wayar sadarwa ko ta amfani da tsarin sadarwa na wayar-iska. Da wadannan mahadai ne take isar da bukatarta ga kwamfutar da ke dauke da bayanan da kake bukata a wata jiha daban.  Da zarar sakon ya iso, babbar manhajar kwamfutarka kan yi amfani da lambar mahadar sadarwa ta 80 (Port 80), wadda ita ce mahadar da manhajar ka’idar sadarwar Intanet mai suna: “Hypertedt Transfer Protocol – http” ke amfani da ita wajen karba da aika bayanai a tsarin sadarwa ta Intanet.  Idan bangaren fasahar Imel ne, akwai ka’idar sadarwa ta Imel mai suna “POP3” ko “SMTP” da ke karbar sakonni ta mahada mai lamba ta 110 ko 25, misali. Wadannan lambobi suna da alaka da waccan mahadar sadarwa, wadda mai karatu na iya ganin ramukanta a jikin akwatin kwamfuta in ta tebur ce (Desktop), ko a gefenta (in nau’in Laptop ce). Kyakkyawan karatun wannan babi zai ilimantar da mai karatu matuka kan falsafar sadarwa ta kwamfuta.

A bangaren karshen littafi, kamar yadda na lura, marubucin ya gina babi guda uku ne, wadanda suka kunshi bayanai kan ruhin kwamfuta, wato manhaja ko masarrafar da take rayuwa a kansu ke nan. Dama manyan bangarorin kwamfuta guda biyu ne; bangaren farko shi ne gangar-jikin da muke gani kuma muke iya tabawa.  Bangare na biyu kuma shi ne ruhinta, wato bangaren da dan Adam ba ya iya tabawa sai dai ya gan shi a aikace.  Idan babu wannan bangare, kwamfuta ta zama kango ke nan.

Babi na Tara shi ne ke kunshe da mukaddima kan ma’ana da hakikanin manhajar kwamfuta, wadda marubucin ya kira da suna: “Software,” kamar yadda ya ayyana sauran taken babi-babin da suka gabace shi. A wannan babi har wa yau, ya yi bayani kan tasirin wannan bangare na kwamfuta, tare da bambance tsakanin manyan nau’ukan manhajar kwamfuta; “System Software,” da kuma “Application Software” don samun kyakkyawar fahimta ga mai karatu.  Ya kuma karashe ragowar babin ne da bayani kan ma’ana da nau’ukan “System Software,”,wato: “Utility Software” da “Operating System” da kuma “Debice Driber”.  A Babi na Goma kuma ya ci gaba da bayani kan daya nau’in manhajar kwamfuta, wato: “Application Software”. Wannan shi ne nau’in manhajar kwamfuta da galibin jama’a suke amfani da ita a kwamfutoci ko wayoyinsu na salula ko wasu kayayyakin sadarwa na zamani. Sai babi na karshe, wato Babi na Goma Sha Daya, wanda ya kunshi bayani kan fasahar Intanet: ma’ana da asali da tarihi da kuma fa’idojin da fasahar Intanet ke dauke da su.  Wannan shi ne babin karshe da ke littafin.

Tsokaci da ta’aliki

Wannan littafi ne mai girman gaske wanda marubucinsa bai yi kasa a gwiwa ba wajen taskance muhimman bangarorin ilimin da suka shafi kwamfuta musamman a wannan zamani da muke ciki.  Malamin ya yi amfani da salo uku ne muhimmai wajen karantar da mai karatu. Salo na farko shi ne tsarin fayyace ma’anar kalma ko wata na’ura da yake bayani a kanta. Wannan a bayyane yake ga duk wanda ya karanta wannan littafi. Salo na biyu shi ne amfani da misalai, wajen bayanin wani tsari na gudanuwa ko samuwa ko sarrafa wani yanayi na sadarwa.  Su ma ire-iren wadannan misalai a warwatse suke cikin littafin birjik.  Sai salo na uku wanda ya kunshi amfani da tarihi wajen fahimtar da mai karatu asali da samuwar wata fasaha ko na’ura.

Don tabbatar da kyakkyawar fahimta a kwakwalwar mai karatu, mawallafin ya sanya hotuna na na’urori ko kayayyakin fasahar da yake bayani a kai, a dukkan inda bukatar haka ta taso. Sannan ya yi amfani da jadawali (table) mai tsawo wajen kawo kalmomi 500 na Ingilshi masu alaka da ilimin kwamfuta tare da bayanin ma’anarsu.

Dangane da tsarin rubutu kuwa, Malam Salisu ya zuba harshen Ingilishi sosai a cikin littafin. A tunanina, dalilin hakan ba ya rasa alaka da abubuwa biyu: Na farko shi ne asalin wannan ilimi daga harshen Ingilishi ne. Don haka, rubuta littafi kan ilimin kwamfuta a harshen Hausa ba zai taba yiwuwa ba sai da tsofa kalmomin Ingilishi, tunda shi ne asali. Na biyu kuma, saboda da yawa cikin wadanda suke da ilimin kwamfuta cikin Hausawa a yau, za ka samu kashi 90 cikin 100 na kalmomin da suka san bangarorin kwamfuta da su duk cikin harshen Ingilishi ne.  Don haka, kusan dukkan babi-babin littafin an rubuta su ne cikin harshen Ingilishi ba da Hausa ba.

Ta bangaren ma’anonin kalmomi kuma, marubucin bai rike wani tsari guda wanda ya tabbata a kai ba. Da farko dai, galibin kalmomin da ya fassara bai ba su suna tilo ko murakkabi ba.  Galibi ya kan yi bayanin ma’anar kalmar ce, sannan ya kawo misali don mai karatu ya fahimci ma’anar.  Misali, a shafi na 75 inda mawallafin ke bayani kan ma’anar “CPU,” ya yi amfani da kalmomi sama da daya ko biyu tsakanin Hausa da Ingilishi, don fahimtar da mai karatu ma’anar wannan kalma cikin sauki.  Ga yadda ya sa abin nan:

CPU ko kuma a kira shi da Processor wani lokaci ma shi ake kira da ƙwaƙwalwar kwamfuta… shi ke kasancewa mai fashin baki da fassara ga duk abin da yake faruwa a cikin kwamfuta. Iyakar abin da za a iya maka misali shi ne mutumin da ya je ƙasar da ba sa jin harshensa kuma shi ba ya jin harshensu dole yana buƙatar  tafinta wannan tafinta shi ke jin harshensa kuma yana jin harshensu.

A wasu wuraren kuma yakan yi amfani da kalmar Ingilishi kai -tsaye ba tare da kawo ma’anarta ga mai karatu ba, musamman idan a baya ya ambaci kalmar.  A wasu lokuta kuma yakan yi haka tun kafin ya ambaci kalmar a wani wuri da ya gabata. Kyakkyawar misali na shafi na 94 a Babi na 4 (Input Debices), inda yake bayani kan ma’anar kalmomin “Input” da kuma “Debice,”  yana cewa:

Input na nufin shigar da data ko program ko umarni ta hanyar da ɗan Adam zai iya umartar kwamfuta da shi. Debice kuma na nufin kayan lantarki…

A baya ya kawo ma’anar “data” a Babi na 1, amma da ya zo Babi na 4 sai ya sake ambatar kalmar cikin harshen Ingilishi, maimakon harshen Hausa kamar yadda wadansu za su zata.  A daya bangaren kuma, ya ambaci kalmar “program” a Turance a nan, wanda bai riga ya ambaci kalmar a ko’ina ba kafin wannan wuri. Wannan salo ne da marubucin ya dauka saboda wasu dalilai.

Shawarwari

Bayan nazari da bita kan littafin “Kwamfuta” har sau uku da na yi, daga cikin abubuwan da za su taimaka wajen kara inganta littafin shi ne, rage yawan kalmomin Ingilishi ta hanyar fassara su cikin gajerun jimloli. Wannan zai kara fahimtar da mai karatu cikin sauki.  Ta bangaren jimlolin littafin kuma, zai dace a rage tsayinsu. Saboda gajerun jimloli sun fi saurin isar da ma’ana, musamman ga littafin da ke kokarin isar da wani sabon ilimi irin wannan, wanda rubuce-rubuce ba su yadu a fannin ba, cikin harshen Hausa. Haka nan, zai dace idan aka ba da ma’anar kalma a farko cikin wani babi a harshen Hausa, to, idan aka zo ambaton kalmar a wani wuri a ambace ta cikin ma’anar da aka ba ta a harshen Hausa; in ya so sai a sanya asalin kalmar Ingilishin a cikin baka biyu, misali: “Beran kwamfuta” (Mouse).  Ko “Allon Shigar da Bayanai” (Keyboard). Hakan zai kara tunatar da mai karatu asalin kalmar da aka ciro kalmar Hausar.  Bayan haka, zai dace a yi bitar ma’anar wasu kalmomi. Misali a shafi na 231, mawallafin ya fassara kalmar “Internet” da “Web” da ma’anar “Yanar Gizo,” maimakon “Yanar Sadarwa,” wadda ita ce ta fi isar da ma’ana mai inganci. Haka kalmar “Script” a fannin gina manhajar kwamfuta, an fassara ta da: “Surkullen Yaren kwamfuta”.  Wannan ba zai bai wa mai karatu kyakkyawar fahimta kan sakon da kalmar ke isarwa ba. “Script” nau’i ne na yaren gina manhaja ko shafukan Intanet. Sannan kalmar “surkulle” tana ishara ce ga wani abin da ba ya da hakika; kamar rufa-ido ne. Wannan ya saba wa ilimin gina manhajar kwamfuta, wanda hakika ne shi, ba surkulle ba. Ba dukkan mai karatu zai fahimci asalin ma’anar ba. Ina ganin bitar ma’anar kalmar zai dace don isar da ma’ana mai inganci.

Kammalawa

A karshe, wannan littafi ne da duk mai son fahimtar yadda kwamfuta ke aiki da gudanuwa zai fa’idantu sosai da shi.  Duk da cewa akwai kalmomin Ingilishi da dama, kamar yadda na sanar a baya, hikimar hakan a fili take. Rubuce-rubuce a harshen Hausa kan fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwa, musamman na kwamfuta, ba su yadu sosai ba a kasar Hausa.  Daga cikin manyan kalubalen da ke gaban harshen Hausa wajen ci gaba a wannan fanni, akwai rashin daidaituwar ma’anonin kalmomin Ingilishi na wannan fanni. Ma’ana, samun daidaito A tsakanin masana kan ma’anar kalma, misali: “Click”- “Matsa” ko “Danna?”  Haka idan ka dauki kalmar: “Storage” – “Ma’adana” take nufi ko “Ma’ajiya?”  Ga kalmar; “Memory”-“Kwakwalwa” take nufi ko “Ma’adana?”  Da sauran ire-irensu.

Wannan kalubale ne da ya kamata masana harshen Hausa a jami’o’inmu su tunkara, tare da hada kai wajen ganin an tabbatar da abin da zai zama abin dogaro.  Lokacin da marubucin wannan littafi ya aiko mini don tofa albarkacin bakina, abu na farko da ya fado zuciyata ke nan. Shi ya sa a karshe da na gama bitar littafin, daga cikin uzurin da na ba shi na rashin tabo ko magana kan ma’anonin da ya bai wa galibin kalmomin Ingilishi da ya kawo a littafin, shi ne rashin daidaitaccen tsari abin dogaro. A yanayi irin wannan kuwa, hanya mafi sauki ita ce samar da daidaitaccen tsari da zai bai wa wadannan kalmomi ma’anonin da aka amince a kansu.  Kafin samuwar hakan kuwa, dole ne mu hakura da abin da ya samu.  A hankali, wata rana sai labari.

An wallafa wannan rubutu ne a jaridar Amina ta ranar 4 da 11 da 18 na watan Janairun 2020

zaku iya samun Abdullahi Salihu Abubakar (Baban Sadik) ta aikawa sakon email a wasiku@babansadik.com ta karamin sako ta wannan lambar 08034592444 (tes kawai)

Categories
Tsaro Tsaro

HANYOYIN DA AKE BI A CUCI MUTANE A INTANET

Wannan ita ce tattaunawa da muka yi a gidan Radio FM na Freedom da ake samun shi a lamba 29.9 FM a Kaduna in da muka tattauna game da hanyoyin da ake bi domin a cuci mutane a wannan kafa ta intanet.

A cikin shirin wanda Malam Zakariya Aliyu yake gabatarwa mai taken DUNIYAR MU A YAU shirin ya samu damar gayyato Salisu Hassan Webmaster (Shugaban Duniyar Computer) tare da Malam Bashir Aliyu wanda yake lura da bangaren ICT na gidan Rediyon Freedom Kaduna.

Shirin wanda ya kwashe kimanin mintuna 45 mun yi bayani ne game da hanyoyin da bata gari suke bi domin su damfari jama’a da kuma hanyoyin da mutane zasu bi domin ku kare kansu.

Wannan shiri za ku iya suke shi ku saurari ta wannan link dake kasa

http://duniyarcomputer.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/freedomradio_internet.mp3

Categories
Facebook

Yadda ake gane Facebook accout da aka yi hacking da yadda a magance shi

Ba abin mamaki bane ka bude shafinka na facebook ka wayi gari ka ga wani mara mutunci ya kwace ragamar tafiyar da shafin naka. Hakan fa na faruwa cutarwar da kuma zayi zai iya shafarka ko abokanan huldarka ko kuma ‘yan uwanka da suke amfani da intanet bama facebook ba.

Inda tsoron yake, wani lokaci zaka samu wani yana amfani da shi wannan account din naka amma kuma kai ba ka ma sani ba. Wani lokaci kuma sai mutum ya tashi budewa sai kawai yaji ance an canza masa passoword ko kuma yaga sunansa ya canza daga nashi zuwa na wani.

Madalla da wadansu hanyoyi da mutum zai iya bi ya gane cewa wani yana amfani da shafinsa kuma da hanyar da zai iya bi domin ya dakatar da wannan mutumi amfani da shafinsa.

Yadda zaka gane idan anyi hacking account dinka.

Wani lokaci ana iya fahimtar anyi hacking accout din mutum ne ta hanyar ganin tallace-tallace na shiga shafukan abokan ka a facebook da sunan kaine kake yi musu wannan tallan, wanda a ciki kana basu shawara ko ma tursasawa da su sayi wannan abin da kake yin tallansu.

Account din facebook da aka yi hacking wani lokaci yakan yi amfani da email address din da suke cikin facebook dinka ya rika aikawa da wadansu sakwanni da baka sani ba.

Wani lokaci idan kaga an canza maka suna ko wani bayani a profile dinka ko imel dinka ko password to lallai wannan account na facebook ba naka bane wani ke da iko da shi.

Hanyar da zaka gane cewar wani yana amfani da facebook account dinka shine ta hanyar shiga security setting na facebook dinka

Ka shiga settings>security>where you’re Logged in sannan ka taba Edit zai fito maka da hoton bayanin na’urorin da suke amfani da facebook dinka. Idan kaga bakuwar waya to sai kayi blocking dinta.

Categories
Tsaro

Shin wani zai iya amfani da BVN ya satar min kudi a Banki na?

Wannan ita ce tambayar da mutane da dama suke yawan yi a lokacin da kamfanoni ko ma’aikatu suka nemi mutum ya bayar da lambobin BVN din sa.

Kafin mu bayar da wannan amsar, da farko dai ya kamata mu fara tambayar kanmu shin wai mene ne BVN?

BVN na nufin Bank Verification Number wato waɗansu lambobi da banki suke baiwa kowane mutum bayan sun karɓi waɗansu bayanai daga gare ka wanda ya kun shi, cikakken sunanka, da adireshinka, da lambar wayarka da hoton fuskarka, da hotunan ‘yan yatsunka.

Wannan shine BVN kuma makasudin yin sa shine domin tabbatar da tsare dukiyar jama’a da tantance adadin jama’ar da suke yin mu’amala da bankuna a kowace kasa.

Bayan banki sun karɓi wannan bayanai duk wani asusun ajiyar kudi da zaka bude a kowane banki ba sai ka sake bayar da bayanan ka ba, kana basu wannan lambar shike nan suna da komai naka.

Sai mu koma ga amsar tambayar mu na cewar Shin ana iya satar kudin mutum ta amfani da BVN? Wannan maganar kwata-kwata ba gaskiya bace, babu alaka da tsakanin BVN da Account number din ka ta wurin cire kudi. Domin da za ka je banki cire kudi sai ka manta ka rubuta BVN dinka a takardar karbar kudi, mai biya ba zai iya sanin account dinka ba.

Akwai banbanci tsakanin BVN da PIN number dake jikin ATM dinka, wanda shi PIN din ATM shike da hatsari sosai wurin fadawa hannun miyagun mutane.

Amma duk da haka ba mu ce ko ina ka saki BVN dinka ba.

Categories
Communication Duniyar Waya Kimiyar Sadarwa

Yadda Wayar Selula take yin aiki

Yawancin mu a wannan lokaci wayar hannu ta zaka bangaren rayuwar mu, amma kuma nasan daga cikin tambayar da muke bukatar amsarta shine wai ya wayar hannun mu take iya kira ko ta amsa kira? Me yasa ake samun karni daban-daban a harkar sadarwa na waya?

https://youtu.be/r4M9kStH_cI

Bari mu fitar da sirrin dake karkashin yadda waya ke musayar bayanai tsakanin mutane.

Idan mutum yana magana lokacin amsa waya, muryar ka na shiga cikin wayar ta hanyar amsakuwar wayar (microphone), makirfun sai ta sauya muryar zuwa amo na kwamfuta (digital signal) da taimakon wadansu na’urori da suke jikin wayar.

Shi wannan sautin da ya koma digital signal ya koma 0 da 1 ne, ita kuma antena wayar tana amsar wannan signa na 0 da 1 sai ta tura shi waje ta hanyar fasahar wutar lantarkin tafiyar da sauti (Electromagnetic Wave).

Shi kuma Electromagnatic Wave sai ya aika da wannan 0 da 1 ta hanyar kakkabe yanayin halayya aikawa da sakon, wanda ya shafi hanyar da sautin zai bi, da makamantansu.

Misalin fasahar da electromagnatic wave ya aikawa da wadannan lambobi na 0 da 1, shi 1 yana da mita na sama (high frequency) ita kuma 0 na tafiya a mita ta kasa (low frequency).

Saboda haka,  idan ka kira wayar abokinka zai canza kira zuwa Electromagnetic Waves, ta haka zaka samu damar yin magana da shi.

Kodayake Electromagnatic Wave ba sa iya yin tafiya mai nisan zango, karfin su na iya ragewa ne saboda cin karo da wadansu abubuwa da suke tare musu hanya, wanda suka hada na’urorin wutar lantarki da gidaje da makamantansu.

Kai kodama ba don wadannan matsalolin ba Electromagnetic Waves ba zasu iya yin dogon zango saboda halittar duniya da Allah yayi ta a dunkulalliya.

Dalilin wannan matsaloli ne aka kirkiri Cell Towers ko sabis a Hausance a kimiyar sadarwa na wayoyin hannu. A Kimiyyar Sadarwa na wayar hannu taswirar duniya an tsara ta kamar gidan zuma (hexagonal) ko rami-rami (cell), kowane rami an ajiye mishi nashi sabis na waya da kuma hanyar sadarwar da zai yi amfani da ita.

Su kuwa wadannan sabis na waya dukkansu an hada musu wayoyi ne  ta karkashin kasa da wayar Fiber Obtic. Su kuma wadannan wayoyi na Fiber Obtic da aka shinfida su a karkashin kasa sun ratsa cikin tekuna domin hada alaka da kasashe da garuruwa.

Su wadannan electromagnetic wave da wayar ka ke fitarwa sabis din ka ce zata dauke su, sai ta sarrafa shi ta kuma canza shi ya koma wani irin signa na haske mai tafiya da tsananin sauri, su kuma wannan singa zai bi wayar da ta shiga kananan na’urorin da zasu aika da sauran bayanai.

Bayan kana nan na’urorin sun gama komai sai su aika zuwa sabis dake kusa da kai, da zarar wannan signa ta shiga wannan sabis sai ta canza shi ya koma wannan electromagnatic waves, nan take sai wayar abokinka ta karbi wannan signal, ita kuwa wannan signal sai ta canza ta dawo 0 da 1 wanda zai biyo cikin wadancan na’urorin da suke cikin wayar sai su fitar da sauti daga sifikar wayar.

Maganar gaskiya wayoyin selula da ake fadin cewar basa amfani da waya ta zahiri, wannan ba gaskiya bane, suna amfani da wayoyi domin aikawa da sauti da kuma sakwanni. Wannan shine yadda wayoyin hannu suke yin musayar bayanai a tsakanin su.

Har ila yau akwai tambayar da bamu bayar da amsar ta ba. Ana samun nasarar kiran waya ne tsakaninka da abokin ka a lokacin da sabis dinka ta aika da sakon signa zuwa sabis din abokinka. To amma yaya sabis dinka ke iya fahimtar wane sabis ne abokinka yake?

Hakan yana tabbata ne da takaimakon wani daki da ake kira da Mobile Switching Center (MSC), shi wannan dakin shi ya hada dukkan sabis din kowace unguwanni da ke kusa da shi.

Kafin mu ci gaba da bayani bari mu kara bayani game da wannan dakin na MSC, lokacin da ka sayi layin waya (SIM Card), dukkanin bayan da kayi rigistan layin ka yana ajiye ne a MSC, to wannan MSC shine zai zama MSC dinka.

Shi wannan MSC naka zai ajiye bayanan ka wanda suka da tsarin kiran wayarka, wurin da kake, da kuma abin da kake yi a kowane lokaci. Idan ka bar unguwarku wacce MSC din ka yake sai ka matsa gaba MSC na gaba zai zama sabon MSC naka a matsayin Bakon MSC (Foreign MSC).

Kana shiga bakon MSC zai aikawa da MSC dinka inda kake, a takaice dai MSC dinka yana sanin wane yanki kake. Domin fahimtar a wace sabis MSC’n mutum yake. Shi MSC yana amfani da wadansu dabaru ne guda uku.

  • Dabara ta farko shine ya sabunta wurin da mutum yake a kowane lokaci.
  • Dabara ta biyu lokacin da mutum ya bar MSC dinsa ya tafi wani MSC, duk MSC’n da yake zata ta cigaba da aikawa da MSC dinka labarin inda mutum yake.
  • Dabara ta karshe shine lokacin da mutum ya kunna wayarsa.

Bari mu bayar da misali ta hanyar hada wadannan dabaru domin mu kara fahimta.

Mu kaddara Ladi tana son kiran Tanko, lokacin da Ladi ta danna lambar Tanko, kiran zai sauka ne kai tsaye zuwa MSC din ita Ladin, da zarar lambar wayar tanko ta shiga MSC din Ladi sai su aika da kiran zuwa MSC’n Tanko, nan take MSC din tanko zasu duba suga yanzu yana wane MSC ne.

Idan aka yi sa a yana MSC din shi, nan take MSC dinsa zai hada kiran da Ladi tayi masa, bayan ta duba shin wayar na kunne ne, ko yana amsa wani kira. Idan komai lafiya lau ne, nan take kawai sai wayar sa ta fara kara.

Idan kuwa Tanko ba ya kusa da MSC dinsa, nan take MSC dinsa zai binkici bakon MSC din da ya ga Tanko da wurin da yake a halin yanzu. Shi kuma bakon MSC da yake shima zai biyo irin hanyar da muka fada dazu kafin wayar Tanko ta amsa kiran Ladi.

Muhimmancin mita da waya ke amfani wurin aikawa da kira (Frequency Spectrum)

Bari mu yi karin bayani game da muhimmancin mita da waye ke amfani da shi wurin musayar bayanai wanda ake kira da Frequency Spectrum a turance.

Wannan mitar ina son mai karatu ya fahimta irin mitar da muke kamawa na gidajen Rediyo ne, da zaka ji gidan Rediyo yace ana kamamu a Mita mai gajeran zango da mita kaza a babban zango.

Aikawa da 0 ko 1 a tsari na digital communication, kowane mutum za a bashi mitar da wayar shi zata yi amfani da shi. Saboda haka ita wannan mitar da wayar salula ke amfani da ita ba ta da yawa sosai, ga shi kuma akwai biliyoyin mutane da suke amfani da wannan wayar selula. Wannan matsalar an magance tane ta amfani da fasaha iri biyu.

  1. Hanya ta farko shine Frequency Slot Distribution
  2. Hanya ta biyu Multiple Access Technique

A fasaha ta farko (Frequency Slot Distribution) ana bawai kowace sabis na waya mitar ta na daban, a fasaha ta biyu kuwa (Multiple Access Technique) ana baiwa kowace wayar da take kunne ne mitar ta dake wannan sabis din

Karnonin Wayar Salula

Yanzu babban abin tambayar shine me yasa ake samun karni-karni a wayar Selula?

Karni na Farko First Generation (1G)

Karni na farko – 1G yana baiwa masu amfani da wayar selula damar amfani da wayar ba tare an hada da igiyar waya ba, amma kuma wayar 1G tana fama da manyan matsaloli guda biyu.

  1. Matsala ta farko ita ce hanyar da yake aikawa da ita na mara waya (wireless) to ita mitar tana tafiya kamar sautin makirho (analag signal), shi kuwa wannan sauti na analog abubuwa da yawa suna iya lalata shi, shi yasa sautin baya fita da kyau kuma babu tsaro a tare da shi.
  2. Matsala ta biyu shine amfani da fasahar Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), wanda yake amfani da kowace mita da ya samu ba tare da amfani da ita yadda ya dace ba.

Wannan dalilai ne suka sa dole a fitar da wani karni na biyu a tsarin musayar bayanai na wayar selula.

Karni na Biyu – Second Generation (2G)

2G yana amfani da fasahar Digital Multiple Access wanda ake kira da CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) ko TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), a kuma karni na biyun ne aka shigo da tsarin amfani da data dake ba mutum damar aikawa sakon SMS da kuma shiga intanet.

Karni na Uku – Third Generation (3G)

A karni na uku an mayar da hankali ne wurin yadda za a kara aikawa da bayanai masu nauyi cikin sauki da hanzari ta hanyar amfani da dabarar WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) tare da kara bandwith na shiga intanet.

Karfin musayar bayanai da yakai 2Mbps ya sanya ake iya aikawa da saukonni masu nauyi kamar su GPS (Global Positioning System), kiran wayar intanet mai amfani da sauti (voice call) da kuma kiran waya na video (video call). Wannan canji da aka yi a wannan karni na uku shi ya sauya wayoyin selula na al’ada zuwa wayoyin komai-da-ruwanki (smartphones).

Karni na Hudu – Forth Generation (4G)

Karni na hudu shi kuma ya samu karfin musayar bayanai na Intanet daga 20 – 100 Mbps, wannan karfi ya dace da kallo manyan bidiyo masu kyau da karfi (HD Video) da kuma amfani da gidajen Talabijin. An samu wannan nasarar ne saboda amfani da fasahar OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) da fasahar MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output).

Ita wannan fasahar ta MIMO yana amfani da waya da mutum ke rikewa da su sabis a lokaci guda

Karni na Biyar – Fift Generation (5G)

Ita kuwa karni na biyar a fanni musayar bayanai na wayar selula wanda ake sa ran shigowarsa nan daga jimawa ba, ana fatan  bunkasar karfin musayar bayanai ta amfani da fasahar MIMO da kuma Milimeter Waves, hakan zai bayar da damar cimma nasar hada abubuwa da dama na fasahar Intanet-Don-Komai (Internet of Things – IoT), wanda ya hada da amfani da motoci marasa matuka, da amfani da gidaje masu aiki da kansu.

Wannan shine karshen bayani game da yadda wayoyin hannu suke yin aiki, da fatan mun fahimci yada din suke yin aiki.

Categories
Duniyar Internet

Tsakanin Katin VERVE da VISA da MasterCard wanne yafi dacewa da in karba a banki?

Bayan sakin mukalar mu wacce take bayani game da YADDA ATM YAKE YIN AIKI mutane da dama ta hanyar WhatsApp sun tambaye mu game da irin katin cire kudi da suke ganin bankuna suna bayarwa wani ana rubuta Verve ko Visa ko MasterCard a jikinsu, shin mene ne banbanci ko kuma dai dukkansu abu daya ne?

Wannan matsalar ma sai kaje banki kana son karbar shi wannan katin cire kudi sai ka rasa wannen ne zaka karba, sannan kuma me yasa wani lokaci banki basa ba mutum zabi sai kawai kaga sun sabunta maka da katin da ba shi ka saba mu’amala da a baya ba?

Da farko dai ya kamata mu fahimci cewar dukkan wadannan katunan guda uku da muke ganinsu a hannun mutanen Najeriya kati ne da zai baka damar ka yi siyayya ba tare da kana da kudi a aljihunka ba. Matukar kana da kudi a cikin asusun ajiyar kudin ka dake bankinka, kuma baka fitar da adadin kudin da aka baka damar kashewa kowace rana ba to zaka iya siyayyarka.

A wannan dan darasi da zamu baku, zai taimaka muku wurin sanin wanne kati na ke bukata sannan kuma mene ne amfaninsa da rashin amfaninsa da kuma banbance-banbance dake a tsakaninsu.

KATIN BANKI IRI BIYU NE

Abu na farko da yaka mata mu sani shine bankuna suna iya baka dayan kati biyu, ko kuma suma baka dukkan biyu domin aikinsu ya bambanta.

  1. Katin Kudi – Debit Card
  2. Katin Bashi – Credit Card

Katin Kudi – Debit Card

Idan mutum yana da kudi a jiye a asusun bankinsa kuma yaga wani kaya da yake son ya siya a shago ko kanti ko a wani shafi dake intanet to ko bashi da kudi a cikin aljihunsa matukar yana rike da wannan katin zai iya yin siyayyarsa amma kuma da sharadin yana da irin wannan kudi a ajiye a bankinsa, idan ya saka bayanan da banki suka bashi a cikin na’urar POS ko kuma a shafukan Intanet nan take za a cire kudinsa.

Katin Bashi – Credit Card

Sabani da Debit Card, shi Credit Card bankin ka ne zasu baka domin ka iya yin siyayya a shaguna ko shafukan intanet koda baka da ko sisi a cikin asusun bankin ka wanda daga baya idan ka samu sai ka biya. Wato sunan bashin da aka alakanta masa yayi daidai da aikinsa.

Saboda haka, kowane banki suna iya baka Credit Card ko Debit Card ya danganci da irin huldar da zaka yi da su banki, amma kuma kaso 90 cikin 100 na masu amfani da katin suna amfani da Debit Card ne.

BANBANCI TSAKANIN VERVE DA VISA DA MASTERCARD

Kamar yadda muka fada a farkon wannan rubutu cewar mutane suna rudewa idan suka je bankuna suna son su yi katin cire kudi saboda bankunan mu suna bamu zabi cikin kati uku da ake da shi. To, ga banbance – banbancen da ke a tsakanin su.

1.    Verve Card

Shi wannan katin dan gida ne, wato an yishi ne domin ‘yan Najeriya kawai sannan ana amfani da shi a Najeriyar ce kawai. Idan banki suka kaba to zaka iya yin amfani da shi ne kawai a kasuwanni Najeriya da dukkan ATM din Najeriya. Za kuma ka iya amfani da shi a POS da kuma dukkan bankunan da kana nan cibiyoyinsu da suke amfani da mahadar Interdwitch.

Haka da wannan kati na Verve zaka iya biyan kudin wuta na PHCN, zaka iya siyan katin waya, zaka iya aikawa da mutum kudi zuwa asusunsa, za kuma ka iya siyayya a dukkan shafukan da ake siye da siyarwa a Najeriya, kamar su FATAUCI, da Jumia da makamantansu.

2.    Visa Card

Wannan kati ne da ake karbar sa ko’ina a duniya. Wanda yake da wannan kati zai iya siyayya da shi a dukkan kasuwanni da suke duniya ba tare da wata matsala ba. Akwai shafukan dillanci da suka yi fice a duniya kamar su Amazon da Ebay da Aliexpress dukkansu zaka iya cinikayya da amfani da wannan katin.

Sannan kuma duk abin da katin Verve yake iya yi a cikin gida shima wannan katin na Visa yana yi shima. Shi wannan kati na Visa an samo shine daga BankAmericard daga Fresno dake California ta kasar Amurka a shekarar 1958 wanda daga bisani aka canza masa suna zuwa VISA a shekarar 1976.

3.    MasterCard

Shima wannan katin kamar Visa ne ana amfani da shi a kowace kasa a duniya kuma duk abinda Visa yake yi a waje shima yana yi, sannan kuma yana aiki irin aikin da Verve yake yi a cikin gida.

Shi wannan MasterCard an kirkiroshi ne a shekarar 1966 ya fito da sunan Master Charge, daga baya ya koma Interbank Card, a shekarar 1979 aka canza masa suna ya koma MasterCard. Shima kati ne na bankin kasar Amurka dake New York a hedikwatarsa dake O’Fallon, Missour. Hukumomin lura da kudade sama da budu 25 ne suka mallake shi.

Daga cikin banbancin amfanin su, shine idan mutum yana rike da MasterCard ko Visa Card sai yayi tafiya wata kasa, to bashi da matsala matukar akwai kudi a asusun bankin sa da zarar yaga ATM zai iya fitar da kudin wannan kasar ba tare da yaje yayi canji ba.

KAMANCECENIYA A TSAKANIN SU

  • Dukkkansu suna zuwa da wani maganadisu a jikinsu wanda yake bukatar a kiyaye sosai wurin ajiyarsa. A kiyaye saka katin wurin ruwa da maiko da kuma saka shi a aljihun baya ga samari domin zama a kansa kan rage masa dadewa wurin amfani.
  • Dukkansu suna zuwa da wadansu lambobi guda goma sha shida, da lokacin da zai dena amfani da wasu lambobi guda uku a bayansa na CVV.
  • Wani lokaci katin yakan zo da sunan mutum a rubuce wani lokaci kuma baya zuwa da suna.

BANBANCI TSAKANIN NAIRA CARD DA DOLLAR CARD

Akwai wani kuma banbanci da ake samu na irin kudin da mutum zai iya fitarwa, kowane banki zasu iya baka katin cinikakka iri biyu, ko na Naira ko na Dalar Amurka.

Naira Card

Kati ne da ake amfani da tsabar kudi na najeriya, wanda shi yana amfani da Savings ko Current Account din mutum ne da yake zuba kudi ko ajiya. Wato duk kudin da zaka saka a cikin wannan asusun kudin Najeriya zaka zuba, saboda haka idan aka baka kati da yake da alaka da wannan asusun naka to ana kiran wannan katin Naira Card domin asalin kudin da ake ajiye mishi Naira ce.

Duk da zaka iya yin siyayyar dukkan wani abu da ka gani a Intanet kuma a fitar da kudin da canjin irin wannan kudin da kayi siyayya, sannan zaka iya amfani da shi a ATM na wata kasa ka cire kudin wannan kasar.

Dollar Card

Shi wannan asusu ne na musamman ake budewa a banki da yake da alaka da bankinka da kuma wani banki dake kasar Amurka domin ajiyar kudin kasar Amurka na Dala, wanda a Turance suke kiranshi da Domiciliary Account.

Shi wannan account din ba a zuba mishi Naira sai Dalar Amurka kawai, kuma ba zaka je ATM ka zura shi ba ya baka kudin kasarku sai dai idan ATM din yana bayar da Dalar Amurka ne.

Zaka yi dukkan wani cinikayya a Internet a manyan shafukan dillaci na duniya, amma kuma ba zaka yi amfani da shi a kananan shafukan da basu da Dociliary Account ba.

Mutane da dama suna bude wannan asusun Dollar ne saboda ana cinikayya da dalar Amurka kusan a kowace kasa a duniya, amma idan kana son bude asusun ajiyar kudi na Pound Sterling ko Euro duk zaka iya mutukar bankin da kake suna da babban bankin a irin kasashen.

Ina fatan kun tsinci abu koda daya ne a cikin wannan mukalar kuma ya amsa wasu daga cikin tambayoyi ko abubuwan da suka shige musu duhu.

Categories
Duniyar Computer

Yadda ATM yake yin aiki

ATM wanda ake kira Automated Teller Machine na’ura ce da ake amfani da ita domin diban kudi ko aikawa da sakon kudi ga mutumin da yake ma’ajiya a daya daga cikin bankunan da suke amfani da wannan tsari ba tare da neman taimakon wani ma’aikacin banki ba. Irin wannan na’ura da ake kira da ATM iri biyu ce. Akwai wacce ita aikin ta shine ta bayar da kudi kawai sannan kuma zata iya bayar da bayanan kudi ko rahoton abin da mutum ya ajiye a bankinsa.

Dayar kuwa tana aikin da ya zarce ta farko domin baya da biyan kudi kuma tana ba mutum damar ya iya aikawa da sakon kudi na zahiri, da bayar da wadansu muhimman bayanai na katin ATM din mutum sannan kuma ya fitar rahoton bayanan bankin mutum.

Shi wannan na’ura na ATM bankuna ne kawai suke amfani da su domin biya da fitar da bayanan mutane. Su kuma abokanan huldarsu suna iya amfani da wannan na’ura ce kawai idan suka karbi katin ciran kudi daga bankin nasu.

Shi kuma wannan katin ajikinshi akwai wata ‘yar karamar na’ura da ajikinta akwai maganadisu da yake tattare da bayanai na babban kwamfutocin shi wannan banki da ake amfani da shi wurin sanin me mutum ke ajiye da shi a mazubinshi.

Da wannan dalilin ne ya sa mutum ke saka wannan katin a jikin wannan mashin na ATM ya iya fitar da kudin dake cikin akwatinsa bayan ya saka lambobin sirri guda hudu da bankinsa suka bashi idan komai yayi daidai kudi ya fito daga na’urar iya adadin abinda yake bukata.

Wannan na’ura ta ATM John Shepherd-Barron ne ya kirkire ta a shekarar 1960

ABUBUWAN DA SUKA HADA ATM

Na’urar ATM ta hada abubuwa manya guda biyu

  1. Abubuwan shigar da bayanai (Input Devices)
    1. Na’urar karanta bayanan kati – Card Reader
    1. Na’urar Rubutu – Keypad
  2. Abubuwan fitar da bayanai (Output Devices)
    1. Na’urar fitar da sauti – Speaker
    1. Na’urar nuna rubutu – Display Screen
    1. Na’urar fitar da takarda – Receipt Printa
    1. Na’urar fitar da kudi – Cash Dispenser

Na’urar Karanta bayanan kati – Card Reader

Shi card reader yana daga cikin abubuwan da ake amfani da shi domin a aikawa da ita na’urar ATM bayanai (Input Devices), kuma aikin da shi wannan na’urar take yi (card reader) shine karanta bayanan mutum da yake jikin katin.

Bayan mutum ya zura katinsa a jikin wannan na’ura sai ta karanta bayanan ta bincika shin wannan katin nawane banki ne, kuma mene ne lambar mutum na ajiyarsa, daga nan sai ta tura wannan bayani zuwa ga dakin ajiyar bayanai na ATM shi kuma ya aika zuwa bankin mutum.

Na’urar Rubutu – Keypad

Bayan mutum ya zura katinsa kuma katin ya samu damar haduwa da dakin ajiyar bayanai na ATM da kuma babbar na’urar kwamfutar bankinsa, sai ayi amfani da na’urar rubutu domin shigar da lambobin na musamman da shi me katin ya shirya su domin duk lokacin da zai yi amfani da katin ya saka su.

Da shi wannan keypad din mutum zai saka wadannan lambobi guda hudu, da shi kuma zai iya cewa yana son kudi kaza ko baya bukatar fitar da su. Akwai doka ta musamman ta yadda ake amfani da wadannan maballai a kowace kasa. Sau tari abubuwan da mutum ke aikawa ta wannan keypad a jagwalgwale (encrypted) yake zuwa ta yadda wani ba zai iya karanta wannan bayanin ba koda ya saci hanyar bayanan banki. Akwai maballai guda goma sha shida wanda mutum zai iya rubuta abubuwa kusan 48 na haruffa da makamantansu.

Na’urar fitar da sauti – Speaker

Ita wannan na’urar ta speaker aikin ta shine fitar da sautin maballin da mutum ya bata, a wane lokacin gaisuwa da fada maka sakamakon abin da kake yi, misali idan kana neman bayanai na banki ko na kudi sai ta fada maka cewar aiki na gudana halin yanzu.

Na’urar nuna rubutu – Display Screen

Ina wannan na’ura ita ce ke nunawa mutum inda yake a ciki, daga lokacin da ka zura kati har zuwa lokacin da zaka  cire katin duk abin da zaka rubuta da bayanan kudinka da zabin kudin da za a fitar duk a jikin Display Screen. Ita wannan na’ura ta nuna bayanai wani lokaci bankuna suna amfani da CRT Monitor wasu kuma suna amfani da LCD Monitor ne.

Na’urar fitar da takarda – Receipt Printa

Ita na’urar fitar da takarda tana fitar da rahoton abin da mutum ya fitar na kudinsa tare da kwanan wata da ranar da aka fitar da kudin da yawan kudin da mutum ya fitar da ragowar kudin da ya rage a bankin mutum.

Na’urar fitar da kudi – Cash Dispenser

Ita wannan na’ura kusan ita ce zuciyar ATM domin ita ce ke iya fitar da kudin da mutum ya nemi na’urar ta fitar mishi da shi bayan ATM din ya tabbatar da dukkan bayanan mutum sun zama ingantattu.

Aikin wannan na’ura shine ta irga adadin kudin mutum ya nema, ta kuma bincika wurin ajiyar kudin da aka tara mata ta duba ta gani idan akwai irin kudin kuma sun kai yawan da ya nema sai ta irga ta bayar.

Idan aka yi rashin sa a akwai kudin da ya lankwashe to ita wannan Cash Dispenser sai ta zuba wannan lankwasasshen kudin zuwa wani akwati na daban. Dukkan kudaden da wannan na’urar ta fitar tana kuma ajiyar dukkan abin da ya guda a cikinta, na kudin da ta fitar, da wanda tayi kuskuren rikewa, da adadin abin da aka saka mata da wanda ya rage tare da taimakon na’urar RTC.

ATM Networking

Kamfanonin da suke bayanar da Intanet wato Internet Service Provider (ISP) suna taka muhimmiyar rawa wurin tafiyar da al’amuran ATM. Domin lokacin da mutum ya zura wannan katin na’urar, Intanet shine ke kulla alaka tsakanin shi ATM din da kuma babban bankin mutum.

Bayan da mutum ya rubuta lambar PIN din katinsa bayanan zasu bi ta Intanet zuwa babbar ma’adanar ta, sai ta aika da wannan bayanan zuwa ga babbar na’urar, idan bayanan sun yi daidai sai aba mutum damar yin abinda yake son yi.

Na’urorin ATM iri biyu ne

Mafi yawancin ATM da ake da ake amfani da su iri biyu ne da kamfanonin da suke lura da bayanan su suke bayarwa.

  1. Leased Line ATM
  2. Dial up ATM

Leased Line ATM

Shi na’urar ATM din ana jonata ne kai tsaye da babbar kwamfutar da ke lura da dukkan ATM din ta hanyar amfani da layin waya guda hudu kai tsaye daga ita ATM din zuwa babbar kwamfuta ta hanyar amfani da layin waya na Telephone. An fi son irin wannan na’urar sai dai kudin sakata da amfani da ita yana yiwa bankuna tsada sosai.

Dial Up ATM

Shi wannan na’urar ATM din tana amfani da layin telephone ne ta hanyar amfani da modem. Bankuna suna son yin amfani da wannan na’ura saboda bata tsada wurin sakawa.

Tsaro da ATM yake da shi

Lambobi guda hudu na PIN shine farkon garkuwar katin mutum wanda yake kasancewa sirri ne tsakanin mai shi katin da ATM dinsa. Shi kuma abin da yake rubutawa ajikin ATM din an rubuta wata manhaja da take jagwalgwala rubutun ta yadda babu yadda za ayi wani ya iya sani me mutum yake yi koda ya yayi kokarin amfani da ilimin satar bayanai.

Ana amfani da tsaro mai karfi na Triple Data Encryption Slandered wurin jagwalgwala dukkan bayanai da suke zagayawa tsakanin babban dakin sarrafa bayanai da kuma bankin da mutum yake ajiyar kudi.

Ka’idojin da ATM yake bi domin yin aiki

Kamar yadda muka fada ATM yana amfani da abubuwan shigar da bayanai guda biyu da na fitar da bayanai guda hudu. Wadannan na’urori guda shida sune suke kulla alaka tsakanin ATM din da babban dakin ajiyar bayanan sa, shi kuma dakin ajiyar bayanan ATM shi ne zai yi magana da babban kwamfutar ajiyar bayanan mutum na banki. Dukkan ATM da suke aiki a duniya suna amfani da babbar Database da suke musayar bayanai. Shi ATM din dole yayi magana da babbar kwamfuta (server) da ke ajiyar bayanan ATM. Ita babbar dakin bayanai ita zata yi amfani da Intanet domin magana da bankin mutum. Amma dukkan abubuwan da ATM din yake bukata ya tattara ne a jikin katin ATM din dake hannun mutum.

Lokacin da mutum ya zura katin sa ajikin ATM domin yayi hulda da ATM, shi mutumin shi zai bayar da amsoshin bayanan da ATM ya tambaye shi ta amfani da keypad. Shi kuma ATM zai aika da wannan bayanan zuwa babban dakin ajiyar bayanan sa. Shi kuma babban dakin ajiyar bayanan sai yayi magana da bankin mutum nan take. Idan mutum yana bukatar ya fitar da kudi ne, to babban dakin ajiyar bayanan ita ce zata cire kudin daga cikin bankin mutumin da ya ke dashi a banki. Da zarar bankin ya tura wannan kudi zuwa dakin ajiyar bayanan ATM sai shi wannan dakin ajiyar ya ba ATM izinin fitar da wannan kudi da mutum ya bukata.

Amfanin da ATM yake yi

  1. Ana anfani da ATM a kowane lokaci ba dare ba rana
  2. Akwai sirri wurin mu’amala da ATM da bankin mutum
  3. ATM na ragewa ma’aikatan banki wahalhalu
  4. Ana samun sababbin kudi a ATM
  5. Mutane sun fi samun natsuwa a ATM
  6. Matafiya suna jin dadin ATM
  7. Ana samun bayanai a ATM ba tare da tangarda ba

Saukin da ATM ya kawo

  • Yana kulla alaka tsakanin bankuna
  • Yana bada damar sanin bayanin bankin mutum
  • Yana fitar da takardar bayanin mutum na bankin sa
  • Yana baka damar canja PIN
  • Yana baka damar fitar da kudi
  • Yana baka damar siyan katin waya
  • Yana baka damar biyan kudin aikace-aikace
  • Yana bada damar hulda da bankunan da suke kasashen waje.

Wannan shine karshen bayani game da yadda ATM take yi aiki. Idan akwai wani tambaya ko neman karin bayani sai ka yi a kasan wannan kasida a wurin sharhi.

Categories
Duniyar Computer

Farkon Kwamfutar Zamani

Tarihin kwamfuta ba zai taba mantawa da yakin duniya na biyu ba, domin a cikinsa ne jama’a suka fara ganin gingima kwamfutoci a rayuwar su. Amma kafin barkewar yakin, a shekarar 1938, Konrad Zuse (1910-1995) injiniya dan kasar Jamus ya kirkiri kwamfutar da ake kira da Z1, wacce ita ce kwamfuta ta farko da take amfani da programming da binary, wacce ya yi ta a cikin dakin kwanan iyayensa. A shekarar da ke biye da ita. Da shekara ta zagayo sai John Atanasoff (1903-1995) wanda masanin physics ne dan kasar Amurka da mataimakin shi Clifford Berry (1918-1963) wanda shi kuma injiniyan kayan lantarki ne, suka kirko wata kwamfutar da take amfani da tsarin binary wacce tafi Z1 aiki suka sa mata suna Atanasoff Berry Computer (ABC). Wannan kwamfutar tafi Diffirential Analyzer da Vannever Bush ya yi sau dubu, saboda irin yadda take fitar da sakamako daidai.


Konrad Zuse (1910-1995) injiniya dan kasar Jamus tare da kwamfutar sa ta Z1

Wannan kwamfutar ABC ita ce farkon kwamfutar da ta fara amfani da tsarin kunnawa da kashewa wato No/Off wurin ajiyar binary code. Wanda duk lokacin da wannan makunna take a matsayin off to kwamfutar tana ganin 0 ne, idan kuma taba kunnawa wato On tana ganin 1 ne. Wannan injin aka yana aiki da tsarin digital ne ba kamar kwamfutocin baya ba da suke aiki na analog, wadanda suke ajiyar lambobinsu ta hanyar amfani da gargare wurin ajiyar lambobin su.


Harverd Mark I ko kuma IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC)

Kwamfuta mai girman gaske wacce aka fara gani ita ce wacce take a Harverd University a shekarar 1944, wacce Howard Aiken (1900-973) masanin lissafi ya kirkirota, wacce kamfanin IBM suka bashi tallafi wurin gina ta. Ana kiran wannan kwamfuta da Harverd Mark I ko kuma IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC). Wannan kwamfutar tana da girma domin takai kusan kafa 50 ko kuma muce tsawon mita 15.

Kodayake mafi yawan mashinan da ka kirkira a wancan lokacin an yi su ne domin taimakawa sojoji wurin yaki, shi yasa a lokacin yakin duniya na biyu, sojoji sun dauko hayar kwararru a bangaren kimiyya sama da guda dubu goma domin su taimaka musu a lokacin shi wannan yakin. Amma kuma a daidai wannan lokacin ba haka abin ya ke ba a kasar Jamus, domin lokacin da Konrad Zuse ya ke neman sojojin kasar su bashi damar ya kirkiro kwafuta mai suna Z2 domin ya taimakawa sujojin sai hukumar taga ba wani bata da bukatar shi, saboda haka sai ta watsar da wannan bukata ta shi.

A bangare guda kuwa, a shekarar 1943 wasu kungiyar masana lissafi ne da suke Bletchley Park kusa da Landan na kasar Ingila wanda ya hada da Ala n Turning suka gina wata kwamfuta wacce ake kiranta da Colossus domin ta taimaka wurin warware rubutun (codes) sirrin kwamfutocin kasar Jamus. Ita wannan kwamfutar ta Colossus ita ce farkon kwamfutar da ta fara amfani kayan lantarki tsantsa a jikinta, mai makon relays da aka na bayanta ake saka musu. A wannan karon an yi amfani da veccum tube ne. Wannan fasahar ta Vacuum Tube ya yi kama da kwan lantarki ja, duk da cewar shi yana da dan tsawo ne, kuma girmanshi kamar babban dan yatsa ne, kuma yana fitar da zafi kamar yadda da dai jan kwai ya ke fitarwa. Ita kuwa wannan fasahar tun a shekarar 1906 aka fitar da ita wanda Lee de Forest (1873-1967) wanda ya ke kiranta da Audion. Nasarar kikiran da Lee de Forest ya yi ya sanya ake kiran shi da cewar shine baban rediyo, domin lokacin da aka kirkiri wannan fasahar ta vacuum tube ana amfani da ita ne a cikin rediyo.


Electroniic Numerical Integrator And Calculator (ENIAC)

Kwamfuta mai suna Electroniic Numerical Integrator And Calculator (ENIAC) wacce wadansu masana ilimin kimiyya daga jami’ar Pennsylvani, John Mauchly (1907-1980) da J. Presper Eckert (1919-1995) sun yi ta ne bayan da kwamfutar Vannever Bush ta birge su, wacce bayan shekara guda Eckert da kan shi ya ce lallai wannan kwamfutar da suka yi ENIAC ta fito ne daga tsatson  Differential Analyzer. Duk da cewar ita wannan kwamfutar da wadannan masana suka yi tafi waccan ta Bush kaya da nauyi a cikinta.

Misali ENIAC tana da vacuum tube guda dubu goma sha takwas a cikinta (18,000), wanda ya ninka yawan na Colossus sau tara, tana da tsawon mita ashirin da hudu (24 m) wurin kafa tamanin kenan (80 ft), sannan kuma nauyinta ya kai tan talatin (30 tons). ENIAC ana dangantata da ita ce kwamfuta ta farko wacce ta ke aiki da tsarin kayan lantarki gaba daya a cikinta (fully electronic machine), kuma kwamfutar da take aiki da tsarin digital, kuma kwamfutar da ake kira general purpose computer. Duk da ita ma Colossus za a iya cewa ta hada wadannan ayyukan amma dai bai kai kamar wannan ENIAC ba. Amma da yake ita ta kebantu ne da kawai domin a gano surkullen rubutun kwamfutar kasar Jamus wanda ya sanya ba za a ce mata general purpose computer, tun da dai ba za a iya saka mata wani program ba kuma zai ba da wahala sosai idan aka ce za a canza mata program a jikinta.

Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC)

ENIAC wasa farin girki ce, wadannan malamai guda biyu sun kafa kamfani mai suna Eckert Mauchly Computer Corporation a karshen shekara 1940, tare da janyo wani masanin lissafin kasar Hungry, John Von Neumann (1903-1957) wanda yake zaune a jami’ar Princeton, a lokacin ne suka sake tsara wata kwamfuta mai suna Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). A wuri guda von Neumann shi ne ya taimaka wurin samar da hanyar da kwamfuta zata iya ajiyar program da kuma zata iya sarrafa shi program din, kamar dai mu ce shi yasa fandisho da dukkan wata kwamfuta ko na’urorin wannan zamani suke aiki.

A shekarar 1951 Eckert da Mauchly suka sake kirkiro wata kwamfutar mai suna UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) tare da taimakon wani matashi masanin lissafi duk da dai ba sananne ba ne, mai suna Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1992) wanda Howard Aiken da Harvard Mark I su suka fara daukan shi aiki. Kamar yadda kwamfutar Herman Hollerith (tabulator) ta dauki kusan shekaru hamsin ana amfani da ita a baya, UNIVAC 1 ita ma ana amfani da ita ne domin sarrafa data a kasar Amurka domin kididdigar adadin mutanen kasar. Daga baya aka fara yin ta da yawa domin siyarwa ga masu bukata. Da Colossus da Harvard Mark I suna daga cikin kwamfutocin da ba za a manta da su ba tarihi ga masu amfani da kwamfuta, amma kuma dukkansu ba zamu iya dangantasu da cewar su ne kwamfutocin da muke amfani da su ba a wannan zamanin ba, kusan ma duk wata kwamfuta da aka samar a shekarun 1930 har zuwa farkon 1950 ba za a iya kiransu da kwamfutocin zamani ba. Daga cikin irin wadannan kwamfutocin da a wancan lokacin ake kiransu da kwamfutocin zamani akwai Manchester/Ferranti Mark 1 wanda aka gina ta a jami’ar Manchester da wadansu malamai guda biyu Freseric Williams (1911-1977) da Thomas Kilburn (1921-2001), sai kuma EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) wanda Mourice Wilkes (1913-2010) ya gina ta a jami’ar Cambridge dake kasar Ingila.

Categories
Duniyar Waya

Kamfanoni wayoyi 17 da suka yi zarra a Duniya

Sakamakon cigaba da kuma canje canje da ake samu a kimiya wanda yakai ga sanadiyar fitowa ko kuma bayyanar wayoyin da ake kira da smartphone, dalilin da yasa aka samu wannan canji  shine yawan kamfanoni masu kyera woyoyin, da kuma kokarin ganin ko wane kamfani yayi wayar da ta zarcewa abokin karawarsa a kasuwa, a kowace shekara sababbin wayoyi masu sababbin tsaruka da saukin sarrafawar suna kara bayyana a duniya.

A wannan rubutu zamu lissafo wasu daga cikin shahararrun wayoyi da har kullum suke kara fitowa da sabon zubin dake  mai da hankalin kamfanonin da ke yin wayoyin cikin tekun ilimi da bincike domin fitowa da wayoyi wadanda suke da  tsaruka masu bankaye.

Samsung

Wayar Samsung wayace da har ila yau take gaba a cikin kasuwar wayoyi, wacce take da kaso 30% a cikin kasuwar wayoyi a duniya,  ana iya samun wayar Samsung a kasashe akalla 100 acikin duniya. Wannan cin nasara da wayar take samu ana iya alakanta shi da da fitowar manhajar Android  da kuma amfani da shi da kamfanin yake yi.

Apple

Wayar apple tana daya daga cikin wayoyin da suka shahara a duniya sakamakon bakuwar babbar manhajar data zo dashi wadda ta  banbanta  da Android wato iPhone, a kididdiga   kamfanin Apple yana sayar da wayoyi a kalla million dari biyu a shekara tun daga bayyanarsa. Sannan kuma yanada akalla kananan ofisoshi guda dari a cikin kasashe 15.  Ana samanni kamfanin Apple zai cikaga da zama a cikin manyan kamfanoni daga yanzu har zuwa shekara 40 masu zuwa.

Huawei

 Huawei ta shahara ne sakamakon kamanceceniyar babbar manhajarta da wayar Apple da kuma saukin amfani da take da shi kamar babbar manhajar android Android ta fuskar sarrafawa. Wannan babban kamfanin kasar china yayi karfi kwarai dagaske a kasar turai da Latin America da kasashen gabas ta tsakiy, wannan wayar wayar ana sammanin tafi wayar Apple a shiga da kuma yawan sayuwa a kasuwannin waya na duniya. A watan julin shekar 2017 sun sayar da wayoyi a kalla miliyan dari a shekara, sannan suna da ma’aikata a guda dubu saba’in da biyar da suke bincike dumin kara karfafa nagartar wayoyin su.

Vivo

Vivo ita ma waya ce da ta shigo kasuwa ba kuma ta samu karbuwa da amicewar mutane inda suka siyar da wayoyin da suka kai kimanin miliyan 80 a kowace shekara kamar yadda suka fitar da kididdigarsu. Wannan ya nuna yadda cinikayyarsu ta bunkasa da kashi 103% a shekarar 2017.

Oppo

Sun gabatar da ita a kasuwa a shekarar 2001, saboda irin kira da kuma ire-iren wayoyinsu wannan wayar ta Oppo ta samu karbuwa a sama da kasashe 20 wadanda mafi yawancinsu a kasashen Asiya ne. Kamar yadda suka fitar da bayanan adadin kididdigar su, sunce kusan kowace rana suna fitar da wayoyi miliyan 50 zuwa kasashen duniya.

OnePlus

Wayar da itama take taka rawarta a cikin kasuwannin duniya a wannan lokaci ita ce wayar da OnePlus wacce wani kamfanin mutumin China ya ke yi. An san su da iyi wayoyin smartphones wanda matsakaita ne. Wadannan wayoyin OnePlus sun shiga kasashen duniyar kusan 30.

Xiaomi

Xiaomi ta shiga kasuwar smartphone a shekarar 2010, suna da ma’aikata sama da dubu 8 da masu bincike domin ganin kowane lokacin sun kara inganta ita wannan wayar tasu. Baya da kasar China da Indiya sun samu karbuwa sosai a kasar Singapore da Thailand da Brazil da dai sauran kasashe. Suna siyar da sama da wayoyi miliyan 65 kowace shekarar kamar yadda suka bayya a cikin bayanan kididdigar su.

Lenovo

Kamfanin Lenovo kamfanin kasar China ne wanda ya shahara wurin kirkirar kwamfutoci na desktop da Laptop da kuma ma’ajiyar kayan kwamfuta. A shekarar 2013 suka fara kirkirar wayoyin smartphone. A yanzu haka sun yi karfi da samun karbuwa a kasashe wurin 60 a duniya, kuma sun ce suan siyar da wayoyi miliyan 70 a kowace shekara.

LG

Bawai kawai an san kamfanin LG da yin wayoyin smartphone ba ne,  a a sun sharara ne wurin wayoyi ingantattu kuma masu nagarta. Cikin mafi shaharar wayar su akwai G-Series, da K-Series, da Tribute da G Flex da Nexus. Wannan kamfani da LG kamfanin kasar Korea ne inda yake da ma’aikata sama da dubu 80, kuma suna da kanan shaguna kusan 120 a fadun duniya. Sun ce suna sayar da wayoyi sama da miliyan 60 kowace shekara.

Sony

Kamfanin Sony kamfanin kasar Japan ne wanda yake duk wani abu da ya shafi harkar sadarwa. A bangaren wayoyin smartphone kuwa kamfanin Sony ne ya kirkiro wayar Sony Ericson. A shekarar 2012 kamfanin shi ne ya zo na hudu a kamfanin wayoyin da yafi kowanne shahara da cikin a duniyar. Yanzu haka wayarsa data fi shahara ita ce Sony Xperia XZ Premium da kuma Android-Powered Smartphones.

HTC

HTC kamfanin kasar Taiwan ne da kirkiran na’urorin wutar lantarki da suka fara a shekarar 1997. Wayarsu ta smartphone da suka fara sun daura mata babbar manhaja ta kamfanin Microsoft wanda ake kira da Windows OS kafin a kirkiro wannan hadin gwiwar kamfanoni wayoyin hannu da kamfanonin sadarwa na duniya wanda ake kiranshi da Open Handset Alliance. A shekarar 2008 suka kaddamar da T-Mobile wanda ta kafa tarihin wayar smartphone ta farko a duniya da ta fara saka babbar manhaja Android. A shekarar 2017 kamfanin HTC ya bayar da sanarwar cewar ya kulla cikin tsakaninsa da kamfanin Google akan dalar Amurka Biliya $1.1.

Nokia

Idan ana maganar wayoyin hannu kamfani Nokia shine za a iya cewa jagoran kowane kamfanin waya. Wayoyi 10 da aka siyar da su a duniya 7 daga cikin duk na kamfanin Nokia ne wanda ya hada da Nokia 1100, 3210, 1200, 6600 da kuma 2600. A shekarar 2017 ne suka kaddamar da wayar su ta farko da ke dauke da babbar manhajar Android da kuma canza wa wayar lamba ko suna zuwa Nokia 3310.

BlackBerry

Idan kuwa ana maganar fitar da sababbin cigaba a harkar wayoyin smartphone, kamfanin BlackBerry shine kan gaba. Su suka fara fitar da wayar da wayoyin da suke amfani da intanet na farko. Duk da a wancan lokacin ba a iya kiran wancan wayar da smartphone. A shekarar 2013 sun sami sama da mutane miliyan 85. Kasuwarsu ta fadi warwas a duniya bayan da wayoyin Android suka bayyana, shi yasa a shekarar 2015 kamfanin BlackBerry ya fara mayar da hankalinsu wurin kirkirar BlackBerry masu amfani da manhajar Android.

Google

Kamfani google ko shakka ba ayi ya shahara, amma sun kara samun shahara ne lokacin da suka tsunduma cikin harkar wayoyi smartphone. A shekarar 2016 suka fitar da wayar su ta Pixel smartphone daga bisani suka sake fitar da Pixel 2 a shekarar 2017. Wadannan wayoyi sai da suka yi kafada da kafada da wayoyin Samsung da Apple a wurin karbuwa da siyarwa a duniya.

ASUS

ASUS kamfanin kasar Taiwan ne da ya shahara wurin kirkirar na’urorin kwamfuta ta hannu da kwamfutocin teburi da wayoyin smartphones har ma da wadansu na’urorin. A shekarar 2015 kamfanin ASUS ya zama kamfani na hudu a wanda suka fi kowane kamfani a duniya kera kayan kwamfuta. Ta bagare daya kuwa kamfanin ya fitar da wayar smartphone dinsa mai suna ZenFone wacce gaskiya bayan sauki da take da shi wurin siya sannan kuma tana da dadin aiki. Sun samu karbuwa matuka a kasar Indiya da China da wasu kasashen Asia.

Alcatel

Kamfanin Alcatel na daya daga cikin kamfanonin sadarwa mafi shahara a duniya domin ya samu karbuwa a kasashe sama da 70. Sun ce suna siyar da a kalla na’urorin wayoyinsu sama da miliyan 50 kowace shekara. Wayar su ta Pop da Pizi da Idol su suka fi shahara a kasuwannin duniya.

ZTE

ZTE ita waya ce data samu karbuwa sosai a kasar China, baya da kirkirar wayoyin smartphone wannan kamfani yana yin harkokin sadarwa. Shi kamfani mafi mayar da hankalinsa ga kananan kasuwa, amma duk da haka suna yin wadansu wayoyi masu girma da daraja. Kamar yadda suka fitar sun ce suna siyar da wayoyi sama da miliyan 50 kowace shekara.

A cikin wadannan kamfanoni mafi shahara, wacce ce kafi so? Fada mana abin da kake tuna ni mun gode.

Categories
Duniyar Waya

Mene ne ya sa ake kiran wayoyin yanzu da Smartphone?

Smartphone ko kuma kace wayoyin-komai-da-ruwanki kamar yadda malamina Mal. Abdullahi Salihu Abubakar Baban Sadik ke fassarawa wayoyi ne kirar selula (cellular telephone) wacce aka hada ta da kwamfuta a wurin yin aki da wadansu karin aikace aikace da aka san wayoyin hannu a dabi’ance basa yi. Misali kamar saka mata babbar manhaja (Operating System), da manhajar shiga internet (browser) da kuma karfinta wurin amfani da manyan manhajojin da kwamfuta aka sani a dabi’a suke yi.

Smartphone ta farko ita ce IBM’s Simon, wacce suka gabatar da ita ba a matsayin wayar yan kasuwa ba a wani buki na baje kolin kayan kwamfuta a shekarar 1992 mai suna COMDEX Computer Trade Show.

Ita wannan wayar ta IBM’s Simon a lokacin tana iya aikawa da imel da faks, tana kuma iya ajiyar kwanan wata da bayanan alkawuran mutum bayan iya kira da aikawa da sakon kar ta kwana.

Karawa kayan lantarki na taimakon dan adam a aikace-aikacensa na yau da kullum (Personal Digital Assitants – PDA) a karni na 21 lokacin da irin wadannan kayan lantarki na PalmPilot aka kara mata fasahar Wireless domin samun shiga intanet shi ya canza komai.

A shekarar 1996 kamfanin Nokia da HP suka sanyawa PDA dinsu damar kiran waya da kuma saka musu babar manhaja ta farko (OSes) da kuma damar shiga Intanet ta hanyar amfani da Browser.

A tsakiyar shekarar 2000 kamfani Blackberry ya fito da cikakkiyar wayar farko da aka kira ta da Smartphone a kasuwa dalilin haka yasa wayar ta shahara a Duniya baki daya.

A shekarar 2007 kamfanin LG ya fito da tashi wayar mai suna Prada sannan duk a wannan shekarar kamfanin Apple ya fito da tashi mai suna iPhone, wacce ita ce Smartphone ta farko dake da tsarin taba fuska ba maballi. Bayan shekara guda kamfanin HTC ya fitar da shima tashi smartphone din wacce ta fara zuwa da Babbar Manhajar Android na Google.

Daga cikin manyan cigaban da aka samu wurin kirkirar wayoyin komai-da-ruwanki wanda tarihi ba zai manta ba ya hada da wacce kamfanin Sony ya fitar mai suna Xperia Z5 Premuim wacce take zuwa da tsarin daukar hoto mafi girma a waya a wancan lokacin da take daukar hoto 4K a shekarar 2015.

Samuwar Wi-Fi da LTE shima cigaba ne a duniyar smartphone a cikin wadannan shekarun wanda ya taimaka wurin samun saurin musayar bayanai ga masu amfani da su.

Banbancin Cellphone da SmartPhone

Cellphone ko ka kirata da selula wayar hannuce da ba a hadata da igiyar waya (irin wayoyin da), wacce take ba mai ita damar kira da amsa waya, wani lokaci kuma ka iya aikawa da sakon karta kwana na rubutu.

Ita smartphone tana da karin abubuwa masu yawa da kuma muhimmanci, kamar samuwar web browser, manhajojin aikin yau da kullum da kuma babbar manhaja ta waya (Mobile OS). Kari a kan haka ita wayar smartphone tana da tsarin fahimtar yatsun mutum da fuskarsa (biometric), zaka iya yin video chat, sannan kuma ta baka damar gabatar da abubuwan ka na yau da kullum da ma wadansu kari akan haka.

Muhimman Abubuwan da mallaka

Daga cikin abin da wayar smartphone take da shi mai muhimmanci shine damar shiga dakin ajiyar manhajoji na manyan kamfanoni kirkiran manhajoji wato App Store.

Shi app store rumbun ajiyar manhajojin waya ne da mutum zai iya shiga ya bincika kowace irin manhaja ce ya kuma sauke ta a wayarsa. Ana samun manhajoji domin yin aikace-aikacen yau da kullum, kamar na yin rubutu, ko gyaran sauti, ko nadar magana ko wasanni da dai makamantansu.

Abubawan da zamu jero a kasa wasu daga cikin muhimman abubuwan da smartphone ta ke zuwa tare da su.

  • Bada damar shiga intanet
  • Browser ta waya
  • Bada damar amfani da imel fiye da guda a waya guda.
  • Wurin ajiya dake kan wayar
  • Abin rubuta irin na kwamfuta mai tsarin QWERTY
  • Damar haduwa da wadansu na’urori ba tare da hadawa da igiyar waya ba.
  • Damar saukar da manhajoji da girke su, kuma su yi aiki a karan kansu
  • Damar daura wadansu manhajoji masu zaman kansu
  • Bada damar aiki da manhajajo masu yawa a lokaci guda.
  • Damar taba fuska ta fahimci me aka taba (touchscreen).
  • Wi-Fi
  • Na’urar daukan daskararren hoto da hotuna masu motsi.
  • Dama yin wasanni (games)
  • Aikawa da sakonni
  • Amfani da na’urar GPS – (Global Positioning System)

Har ila yau smartphone tana iya amfani da wadansu na’urori da ba a jikinta suke ba domin karawa mai amfani da ita kara jin dadin tafiyar da ita. Misali zaka iya hada ta da Headphone mai Bluetooth, amfani da cajar waya ta daban, amfani da speaker.

Kasancewarta tana iya faduwa fuskarta ta fashe, mutane kan siya robar kariya domin maganin faduwa da fashewa.

Saboda kodawane lokaci smartphone tana amfani da babbar Manhaja da kananan manhajoji yasa ake ganin sababbin gyare-gyare kodawane lokaci (software update).

Manyan dillalai da kamfanoni smartphones

Manyan kamfanonin da suke kirkirar Babbar Manhajar waya (Mobile OSes) suna Apple iOS da Google Android, Microsoft Windows Phone da BlackBerry 10. Kodayake kamfanin BlackBerry yace zai de na yin wannan babbar Manhaja ta cikin shekarar 2019.

Kamfanonin da sukafi shahara wurin kirkirar wayoyin smartphone suna hada da Apple da Samsung da Huawei da LG da Lenove da Motorola da Oppo da sauransu. Kamfanin Apple shi kadai ne kawai a cikin wadannan kamfanoni da yake kirkirar na’urarsa ta iPhone kuma yayi mata babbar manhaja ta iOS amma duk sauran kamfanonin wayoyin suna yin wayoyin ne sai su daura musu manhajojin Android.

Abin da aka fi yi da ita

Mutane da dama suna amfani da wannan wayar ta smartphone domin musayar bayanai tare da ‘yan uwa da abokanan arzuka a kafafen sada zumunta.

Shafukan sada zumunta irin su Facebook da Instagram da Twitter da LinkedIn duk duna da manhajoji masu zaman kansu na wayoyi wanda ake iya saukarwa a app store ayi amfani da su a wayoyin smartphone. Irin wadannan manhajoji suna ba mai amfani da su saukin musayar bayanai da suka shafeshi cikin sauki, tare da hadawa da hotuna.

Wata manhajar da ake aiki da ita a wayar smartphone da ake samunsu wayoyi suna na lura da lafiyar mutane. Misalin manhaja ta ‘The Health’ manhaja ce da ake amfani da ita a wayoyin kirar iPhone wanda suke lura da lafiyar mutum, tun daga yanayin barcinsa, abincin da yake ci da makamantansu.

Haka ana iya amfani da na’urorin daurawa a hannu irin wadanda ake kira da smartwatches sannan a hadasu da wayar smartphone domin a duba lafiyar mutum wanda ya hada da yanayin bugun zuciya sai ya aiko da bayanan zuwa ga wayar mutum domin ganin halin da mutum yake ciki.

Biyan kudade ta wayoyin hannu na smartphone da daga cikin abubuwan da suka fi shahara wurin sarrafa smartphone, ana amfani da hanyoyi mabanbanta wurin yin siyayya a intanet.

Amfanin Smartphone a masana’antu

Blackberry ita ce wayar farko da kamfanoni suka karba hannu bibbiyu har suka siya suka baiwa ma’aikatansu domin su rika amfani da su domin aikawa da sakonni da bayanai ga abokanan huldansu, mun yi haka ne saboda karfin da ita wayar take da shi wurin tsaro da rashin sanin me ake aikawa da shi daga gareta.

Kwararru a harkokin Kimiyyar Kera-Kere IT Professional suna bada shawarar amfani da wayoyin smartphone ga ma’aikata domin gabatar da ayyukansu.